Hindi is National Language of India

Why do I need to mention this thing?


Because an Indian in his blog is saying that only 35-40% of India speak/read Hindi without any reference or facts. Of course, he belongs to a part of India where Hindi is not preferred at all – neither as language nor as national symbol. He is from Chennai. With all due respect to the region and language, it made me go fury over his statement where he asks if Google assume that all Indians know Hindi. And according me, Google should assume.


It is really shame on part of an Indian who doesn’t want Google to present Hindi interface to Indians given the scenario of countries like China, Japan and European countries which prefer their national languages over English. I support him when he says –


Google could display an info box asking the user whether he wants the results to be displayed in a regional language


But when he present wrong facts about India without any proof, any Indian can go angry over such countryman. He should be thankful to be in India and not some place where Kareem belonged to. If he still wants to maintain his statement about the percentage mentioned by him, I would like him to visit other states of India specially the North part of India where he can find each and every Indian knowing/speaking/reading their national language – Hindi.

71 thoughts on “Hindi is National Language of India”

  1. Hi Nitesh,
    I am not opposed to Hindi and I believe my post also doesn’t imply that. My concern was purely from usability point of view. With millions of non Hindi speaking people in India, I feel that Google should leave the choice of language to the user. Of course, the user can change the language at any time. But even the first time, Google can offer a option instead of automatically changing the language to Hindi.

    Another thing. It is a misconception that everybody in south India are opposed to Hindi. In reality the general public has nothing against it. It is purely politics that has created such a picture.

    Hindi is not the national language India…atleast not yet. It is the principal official language of India. Neither the constitution nor the laws of India accord the status of “National Language” to any language in India.

    I hope I have clarified myself.

  2. You still didn’t clear yourself completely. I would definitely like to know from where you pulled out the stat of 35%-40%. And it is from there your post supposed to be implying your feeling towards the national language. You still state number as millions of non-Hindi speaking Indians without any strong base.

    I completely agreed with you in my post about usability factor but you presented it by wrapping with the regional point of view – that is where it hurts a compatriot.

    I have been in South India for significant period and I know very well that they don’t oppose Hind at all. In fact, they also love the fact as much as North Indians that there is a language which connects whole country be it a “National Language” or recognized as “Official Language of the union” as per Article 343 of the Indian Constitution. But when you mention this thing, it clears the intentions. It seems that misunderstood the post on the regional basis. Moreover, I know it is all political net but then a government reflects the majority of public – as far as I believe.

    I expect that you will take care in future while presenting a view specific to a country.

  3. Hello ,
    We In TN need not know hindi and will never acknowledge it as our national language . if u want us to become Indian only by learning Hindi , then we dont like to exist in the Indian union itself . Our national language will always be Tamil , and to connect with rest of the world English is enough . There is no room for Hindi here

  4. Thanks for the comments Sathish but by just saying that there is no room for Hindi in TN or you don’t like to exist in Indian union (What the heck), you can’t refute for the fact that Hindi is the medium of communication used by most of the Indians. It is the official language of India.

    You can connect with rest of the world by learning English but you can’t connect well enough with your own resident Indian brothers and sisters in that way.

  5. Well Mr Satish i strongly presume that its only your view about hindi which looks so hostile. pls dont generalise it.i dont understand what makes it so difficult for you to accept hindi.you are an Indian first and then comes your region.whether you like it or not but you have to accept it as long as you r an Indian.and its not you who decides to stay in this union or not. may be this is one of the reasons why our constitution makers preferred a centralised govt though India being called a federal state.dont mind but i felt your comments are no different from that of a person hostile to this nation.

  6. Hi Nitesh

    What’s wrong with Hindi not being preferred in Tamil Nadu? Language is generally learnt on need basis. Not to be insisted upon!! If hindi’s a national symbol, so is every other language in india – atleast 21 other official languges. Don’t you think it’s a fundamental human right to choose his/her language apart from being naturally affectionate over mother tongue? Ofcourse, a hindi speaker can be proud of speaking a language that’s spoken by the majority.

    We have 800+ lanugages and 2000+ dialects in india. We cannot compare european countries, japan, china et al. with india.

    I also understand the need for some language for communication. I think these 22 official language system has solves quite a lot of them. But we can debate on this.

    Just because Hindi is spoken by a majority, it cannot dominate other languages. Tamil is atleast 1500 years older than hindi and has it’s own origin, Apart from it’s richness in literature. So, if you want a tamil guy to prefer a language over his mother-tongue, then it should be more appealing than tamil. Otherwise a need should drive him to learn a new language.

    I hope by now you would’ve read Article 343-351 of the Constitution of India. I don’t have to give you any explaination on that.

    I hope you don’t keep saying hindi is the national language of india and every indian should learn it!! 🙂 There is no national language in india. Hindi is a official language of the union (only) for official communication, together with english.

    I accept the other reason given by you, anytime i would try to learn languages to connect to others. You can also try learning some south indian language and connect to your brothers and sisters in south. If you are not a hypocrite! 🙂

    I must also mention that Hindi is not rejected in tamil nadu. If you may know, so many people do certification in hindi. There’s atleast one publication for hindi textbooks for these certification. Every college/private school has an option of hindi being chosen as second language. Bollywood movies are fancied very well and waited for. What more you can expect from a state whose mother tongue is officially The Only Living Classical Language of the world!! It is just the idea of injecting hindi is being hated.

  7. Hi Indian,

    First thing first, you are supposed to give proper respect to national symbols be it the names like India or languages like Hindi/English. From your comment, it seems that you don’t want to respect these symbols but only Tamil.

    I don’t think there is any need to give any reason for what is wrong with Hindi not being preferred in TamilNadu which is a state of India, after having said that Hindi is “Official Language of the union” as per constitution.

    Yes it is fundamental human right to choose whatever language one wants to speak. And what language can be better than mother tongue. Of course 22 language system has done quite a justice to need for communication in this diversified nation but it doesn’t limit Hindi as the language spoken by just one part of country. Plus I don’t oppose the historical importance of Tamil language. It is equally respectable as Hindi language is. But when it comes to national integrity, union and the symbols of wholeness, Hindi overpowers Tamil without any doubt. And when it is about being proud of speaking Hindi, it is obvious not because it is spoken by majority but because it is the language of nation. When you talk about richness of Tamil literature, you completely overlook the Hindi literature which is much more diversified and much rich, distributed and more reachable than the Tamil literature. The only motivation of understanding national language should be enough for anyone to learn it. I will and I will always say that Hindi is national language of India and if you still need more facts and heat, you can read another post written after this one – Language problem. If Hindi doesn’t appear to be national language of India and accepted as a language at all by very few Tamil guys (as you said), then can they give reason for how come our national anthem is in Hindi and not in any other language?

    The comparison with other countries was done just to elaborate the respect for the national language possessed by the citizens of those nations, despite the fact how unique their languages are and how difficult it is for others to learn and so is the situation with India.

    In fact I like to learn local languages and I had been learning South Indian languages sometime in past. I have always been having Tamil friends (who always found it difficult to communicate outside their state) and I think I know much about TamilNadu and the atmosphere out there. I know that Hindi isn’t rejected in TamilNadu from the facts that people out there like to watch Bollywood movies and of course Hrithik and Shahrukh but majority of them prefers those to be translated/dubbed into Tamil first :).

    I also understand the motive of behind shooting the Hindi hatred wave and of course, they are very minute guys with no relevance, as you mentioned. All I wanted to clear and represent my view/perspective about Hindi, our national language, over here.

  8. First of all, Indian does not mean “Hindi”. I come from Tamil Nadu and “Tamil” is my foremost language. I know English very well, and I don’t see English with as much antagonism as “Hindi” because English is “NOT” foisted on others.

    And just because we oppose Hindi doesn’t mean we are any less patriotic than you. So, I don’t want to hear that Hindi means Indian and vice-versa.

    Chinese is spoken by 1.2 Billion people, but that doesn’t mean that Mandarin or some form of Chinese should be the official language of the World or Planet Earth.

    We in Tamil Nadu will learn Hindi as and when we think it is needed. It is an irony that in every state in India, English is the preferred medium of instruction and no one raises a hue and cry about it. Every Indian parent wants to send his/her child to an English medium school so that his/her child can succeed in life. Let me ask you this…is there any central authority in India that is pushing English into schools or TV or cinema or public life. NO, right, then why is English so much popular than “Hindi”. It’s because people rationalize and see a need to learn English to succeed in today’s modern life. Hindi has not, and will not, ever attain that status because it is a language spoken by a portion of India. If Delhi was not our capital, Hindi would not be accorded such a high status.

    When you go by economic status, then Tamil/Telugu/Kannada should be the official languages of India because there is more economic wealth in those states. English is paramount because of the economic wealth of America. Otherwise, Russia, with its military might, would have foisted that language over the world.

    Our country is so diverse and I, like many other non-native speaking people, DON’T see the need to learn Hindi. If there is a need, then we will learn it ourselves. English stands a better chance because it’s practical than Hindi.

    Hindi means Indian and vice-versa. Indian means a state of life in which the rich, diverse, and multi-cultural traditions of the sub-continent are respected and adhered to through whatever faith that one practices.

    Let the free spirits of people, freedom of thought, freedom of expression, and freedom of free enterprise choose which language trumps the other. That is why we have democracy, don’t we?


    Mec Man

  9. Nitesh Gautam,
    Open up yourself, dude. You show such immaturity in your analysis.

    “Just because the Constitution says that I can screw my sister, it doesn’t mean that the Constitution is right.” Is it? If the same Constitution doesn’t take into account the sensibilities of people, then we have trouble.

    And, who the heck told you that Hindi has much more literary tradition than Tamil. That clearly shows how little you know about literature, sorry mate.

    Check this article out from University of California, Berkley, which is an authority on Tamil literary research.

    If you shut yourself down, then you stop receiving ideas from others. If you open yourself up, then you make yourself intelligent by interacting with others.


    Mec Man

  10. I never said that there is any problem with English as communication medium but as far as India is concerned, we all Indians except very few Tamilians have accepted Hindi as the national language. then what is the problem with those few fellows, I could never understand. See it is only Tamil guys who are objecting this issue. Even I have Tamil friends but they all understand the importance of Hindi as common medium of communication throughout the country. Just visit few villages outside your home state and you will learn very well, why English can’t be accepted as the common language.

    As far as the richness of a language is concerned, that was never a primary goal behind this post and still can’t justify the importance of Tamil by just giving reference of a document written by a professor of Tamil placed over Tamil section of a renowned university. WTC huh.

    And I couldn’t understand if you want Tamil or English to be accepted as the common medium.

    And if you think that constitution can mention anything as you said, then you know nothing about importance of constitution, buddy. You have a long learning way ahead of you, mate.

    I think I have made my point very clear in the post and comments so far. Therefore, I wouldn’t be replying to the comments anymore.

  11. Nitesh Gautam,
    You are oblivious of the facts. Not a few Tamils, but every one in Tamil Nadu don’t like to learn Hindi. I have lived in Tamil Nadu for 21 years and I know it for a fact. So, shut your Hindi A** up.

    Dude, I have nothing personally against you or Hindi. I would love an India that is strong and vibrant. We want participation from all walks of life and all strata of the population. Hindi is not the way to integrate India. We ought to allow people to practice their own religion, own language, and their own faiths/beliefs. That is the only way to integrate India.

    Don’t force your views on others. Persuasion is an art and you should know that force will not get you anywhere. Otherwise, Hitler, Stalin and other Dictators would still be ruling their respective countries.

    Anyways, read this article from R K Narayan (I hope you know who he is). You will get a perspective of what I am talking about.

    R K Narayan Encounter with a Hindi Fanatic
    At Delhi I met a man who complained, ‘I’m back from Madras after a visit, and there I found to my shock, they do not receive the Hindi news on Doordarshan, but only Tamil news from the Madras Kendra at 8:40 pm. Who permitted this and why ?’

    ‘For the reason that Hindi is not understood in that part of the country’

    ‘How can you say that ? It’s unconstitutional to avoid Hindi. Such unconstitutional practices must be discouraged.’

    ‘It seems that the Chief Minister desired that Tamil news should be telecast at that hour.’

    ‘Oh! Oh! Chief Minister indeed ! If we go on consulting every Chief Minister’s wish, we will get nowhere.

    ‘But I repeat, Hindi is not understood in Madras’

    How can it not be understood while it is written down in the constitution as the official language ?’

    ‘You can give a man an excellent cookery book, but it will not help if he has not learnt how to cook.’

    ‘What cookery book ? In Hindi or English ?’

    ‘What does it matter ?’

    ‘If it is in Hindi, he must understand it.’

    ‘It’s probably in English.’

    ‘English can have no place in our country. It is not in the Eighth Schedule.’

    ‘Whatever you may say, Hindi is not understood, and whatever is not understood remains ununderstood …. It’s axiomatic, you cannot escape it.

    Hindi is easy to learn. No axiom in it, whatever it means’.

    ‘You may want o shout your message in Hindi through a loudspeaker, but it will make no sense to one who is deaf to it.’

    ‘It seems to me just perversity. Hindi is easy to learn, a gentle language.’

    I agree it is a gentle language, but being promoted in ungentle ways.’

    ‘Why won’t you people of the south accept it ?’

    ‘Listen. Because of champions like you, who assume a dictatorial tone and decree must and must not for others. Your tone is self-defeating, counter-productive. While the old caste system is condemned, you are displaying a new caste-superiority and preen yourselves before non-Hindi folk and attempt to order them about, which looks comical. You will have to mend your manners. Approach us normally, with humility, if you wish to achieve results. If you remember, there was a time when in most south Indian homes there were at least a couple of members who attended Hindi classes and appeared for examinations voluntarily, but all that stopped the moment the order came from Delhi that everyone should know Hindi as the only language. It is a historical fact. Think it over. There is still a chance that we shall attain national integration. Good-bye till then.

    ‘Before you go I want to compliment you on your excellent English. Keep it up, otherwise we could not have exchanged ideas. You would perhaps have gone on in Hindi and I would have been so eloquent in Tamil. The situation would have been similar to the one in my story in which a travelling American and a villager he encountered on the roadside carry on a prolonged dialogue in perfect American-English and impeccable local dialect respectively …. The American thought he was making an offer for a life-size clay horse, in whose shade the villager was resting, and the villager thought the foreigner was eager to buy the goats he owned which were grazing nearby …. Well, why don’t you read the story yourself unless you have made a vow not to look at an English sentence.

    – From ‘On Language’ an essay in ‘Salt and Sawdust’ , a collection of stories and table-talk by R.K.Narayan.

  12. Hi Gautam,
    I came to your website by chance.
    I also do not see the reason why you say “Why do i need to justify the postion of Hindi as national language?”

    There was no INDIA before the british…there was never a national language before that…there were only independent countries..
    Since we had a common imperialist, we are now together as an “UNION”…and we will continue to be a strong UNION…”Hindi”, “Hindutva” and “Hindustani” can never be the mantra for nationalism..

    Hope you saw Dil Chahta Hai, the more harder you try to grip teh sand in your hand, the more easily you will loose it from your hands…
    So imposition is never an option…It will never happen in the “Indian Union” again..and i mean it…
    This is the reason why no governement has ever tried it again…
    I am happy to be writing this article to you in english..so i dont see you having an issue with it and nor do i…so i dont understand the problem..

    I am from Tamil Nadu, and i am proud of my state and tbe tamil language i speak..that doesnt mean i disrespect the other languages…you got it wrong when you say that tamil people dont respect hindi….rather this could have arisen from the fact that the Jingoists tried to impose it on the tamil people…

    No language is superior nor inferior to another…
    I dont need to know hindi to be referred to as an indian..
    I dont need to be a hindu to be referred to as an indian..
    All i need to be an indian is to respect a fellow indian citizen..
    This i certainly do…
    The more languages you know the better it is for you…
    After all india is not a homogenous counrty but rather an UNION made by states freed from imperialist rule..

    When i use the word “National” i mean the word “Officially/Symbolically”..
    The National Bird is “Peacock”, does that mean we all dont put the peacock in the Zoo??
    The National Game is “Hockey”, does that mean we all first play hockey in our schools??
    The National Flower is “Lotus”, does that mean all women in india must adore their heads with the Lotus Flower??

    Hope you see the light now..
    Please remember, GAndhi was shot down by hindi fanatics who didnt like his idea of “Hindustani” being imposed as the national language.
    When you could live with this, i dont see how you can agree to the same being imposed by you on others??

    Our national anthem may be in hindi..and i certainly have no problems in singing the national anthem in hindi…i respect all the freedom fighters like bhagat singh/bose/gandhi not because they spoke different tongues, because we all admire their courage and their bravery in fighting hte “Untruth” and “Oppression”..

    Lets not get into the same “Oppressionist Agenda”
    “Truth is a pathless land”

    Lets all remember that to have a stronger india, we need a stronger “Regional agenda with a national perspective”..
    The way it is going on is fine….I certainly have no problems wiht you titling your blog the way it is currently done…cause the “Truth is absolute” and it can never be hidden by Agenda nor propaganda

    Good Luck to you and your ideas…
    I dont agree with them and nor will i on this subject…but you are entitled to your opinion and so am i..
    And Sanskrit is not hte mother of all indian languages…Please do some research…
    India (i mean the lingual jingoists) can never impose on its citizens Hindi as a compulsion…but i have no problems wiht people learning it on their own free will and choice….


    Never again…

  13. Hi Srini

    Thanks for the visit, although by chance. I am happy to see that you agreed over somewhat I said and that our views match a lot.

    I wouldn’t quote much although I want to say much.

    You referred Dil Chahta Hai but I believe that real life is much different than movies. I make my own views and perspective based on my real life observations instead of getting influenced by movies.

    And you asked, where the problem is. Problem is not with me or with you, but with our those brothers and sisters who live in remote areas of our country who know only one or two regional languages and believe that Hindi is the National Language. The problem is with those majority of Indians who want to decide upon the National language which can be represented as the identity of their nation.

    Imposition is always an option to the government, all that matters is the way it is adopted – specially when it comes to our country. But nor do I am in favor of imposition. And if you think that imposition will never be an option in Indian Union, then you don’t want India to be a union…I think you have already thought of giving up over J&K issue which can never be a part of Union without enforcing the Indian Constitution…huh and you talk about imposition. Actually I think you meant inflict instead imposition.

    Everyone is supposed to be proud of their country but the difference between you & majority of Tamilians (I apologize for being specific) with rest of the Indians like me seems to be that we feel proud of India as our motherland and you feel proud of you state. I never mentioned – “tamil people dont respect hindi” but they don’t prefer Hindi and that you know, is true. And it isn’t all that you need to respect fellow Indian citizens being an Indian but to respect national symbols too.

    And when you say – “When i use the word “National” i mean the word Officially/Symbolically”, I also meant the same in reciprocal way when I said – “Hindi is Official Language of the union”.

    I think I didn’t made any mention of Sanskrit here? Like you, I also respect every language. But making other literature available online in abundance and referring to it like anything doesn’t mean that it is superior than other literature.

    When you refer to India as lingual jingoists, be it indirectly, it clears your intent.

  14. You referred Dil Chahta Hai but I believe that real life is much different than movies. I make my own views and perspective based on my real life observations instead of getting influenced by movies.
    [Srini] (thats good, but sometimes movie quotations are inspiring and true!!)

    When you refer to India as lingual jingoists, be it indirectly, it clears your intent.
    [Srini] You got it wrong. I never referred to India as Lingual Jingoists. I meant the Lingual Jingoists who claim to represent the India Union..

    Everyone is supposed to be proud of their country but the difference between you & majority of Tamilians (I apologize for being specific) with rest of the Indians like me seems to be that we feel proud of India as our motherland and you feel proud of you state.
    [Srini] I see no wrong in being proud of ones own mother tongue and mother land as well..
    For me It’s a honour to be speaking tamil, to come from tamil nadu and to be an indian..
    (You can choose the ordering using any algorithm)
    I always believe in a strong regional agenda with national perspective for a “heterogenous” country like india.

    You wouldnt believe me, when today i met a punjabi from india, on a cab in melbourne.
    He was telling me,”When people ask me where i come from, i tell them i am from punjab..and he was proudly emphasising the point that he would prefer to say taht he comes from Punjab and then from India”.

    I see no wrong in his statement as well…
    For me the bottom line is everyone has a different form of love for their country and its people and its culture..
    You have your love for hindi…Iam happy for you…
    I have my own loves…
    I learnt Sanskrit and Hindi not because its a national language..i learnt it out of curiosity and a desire to master more languages..
    So i see no reason why others would do the same…

    The problem is with those majority of Indians who want to decide upon the National language which can be represented as the identity of their nation.
    Why are we looking for a language to be the identity of the nation?
    Our tolerance/respect and love for everything heterogenous is our identity of being Indian.
    We dont need to strive and brain storm for a single national identity..thats our greatness as i have already pointed out..

    Good luck to you in whatever your goals are..

  15. Nitesh – i too am keen for there to be more unification, culturally and linguistically, across our country. After all, true unification would be when a villager from Tamil Nadu can easily communcate with someone from punjab to bengal to gujurat.

    Now – as a kannadiga who has lived most of his life in India up north, and who understands the culture, phsychology of punjai/harayanvi/UP culture very very well…..and who speaks hindi far better than kannada……let me enlighten you about some facts.

    Hindi is NOT the national language in a practical sense. Forget about whats in the constitution. I’m talking abour practicality here. Hindi is the predominant language only ina few states – UP, Haryana, MP, Chattisgarh, Uttaranchal, Jharkhand and Bihar. Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Kashmir have punjabi, dogri and kashmiri respectively. Granted, these languages are relatively similar to hindi and therfore many from these 3 states can easily communicate in Hindi.

    Bengal has bengali and they’re very attached to their culture. Millions of people in the interiors of bengal don;t speal Hindi, and dont care to.

    In Maharashtra, if many people speak and understand Hindi its only because of bollywod and its enormous influence on the junta. Same with gujurat.

    Down south, the languages have less similarity to hindi than say gujurati…..and there is absolutely no reason to learn or develop a competency in Hindi. Certainly for those who don;t speal english, they’re probbaly quite attached to their communal culture and therefore do not see any reason to learn hindi. Those who are propfecient in english do no feel a need to learn hindi as they dont need it to get ahead in life….all education, and work related stuff is in english anyway.

    Now….far more important than the issue of hindi being a pan-indian language is the attitudes and perceptions that many in the north have about the south. Here are some pointers for you.

    DO NOT label all people from the southern states as Madrasis. It is a derrogatory term and quite offensive in that it totally ignores the cultural, linguistic, culinary and every other kind of diversity that exists across the southern states. A punjabi will not like to be confused with a bihari…a kashmiri will not want to be labelled in the same pool as a harayanvi…so pls do not use terms like “Madrassi”.

    DO uderstand that there is NO such thing as an Aryan Dravidian divide between north and south. Whatever physical, linguistic, religious, cultural differences do exist can easily be explained by clear logical factors. They are more regional variances than indicative of a fundamental differentiation of gentetic heritage.

    DO understand that there are heaps and heaps and heaps of people up north who are just as dark as the many of the people down south. DO NOT express surprise when you meet an indian from the south who is fair skinned…..as ALL people form the subcontinent hail from the same genetic pool (a sub root of the caucasian race).

    DO understand that beauty is not about fair skin….there are plenty of darker skinned people who can be physically beautiful, if we care to open our minds and stop having skin colour based prejudice. We have suffered centuries of oppression by european invaders/rulers who considered the brown indina skin to be inferior to their own fair skin. Why then are we being hypocritical by endorsing those same atttudes of colour-prejudice.

    DO understand that other communities in India have as much a right to be proud of their culture as you. If you were born into a tamilian, bengali, kannadiga, manglorian, gyjurati or oriya family…..would you be just as keen to endorse Hindi??????

    I do feel that it would be fantastic to bridge the cultural and linguistic gaps across the country, while at the same time celebrating the diversity and rish individuality….but I’ve seen way way way too much prejudice in the north against the south….and the way I see it…those prejudices have to go first before people from the south will accept Hindi. They will NOT accept Hindi if it is forced upon them. Learn to respect them, and things will happen.

  16. Hi Musafir
    I respect your thought provoking comment and therefore I would like to clear up on few points as a supporter of national language (Hindi in your words) and a North Indian.
    After writing much about not accepting Hindi as national language, I couldn’t understand, why you mentioned in the last –
    …those prejudices have to go first before people from the south will accept Hindi.

    When you say that –
    Hindi is the predominant language only ina few states – UP, Haryana, MP, Chattisgarh, Uttaranchal, Jharkhand and Bihar.
    I can re-state this sentence as –
    Hindi is the predominant language (than any other language) in most of the states of India and there are far more people who speak Hindi than any other language.

    You will agree with that.

    When you say –
    Bengal has bengali and they’re very attached to their culture. Millions of people in the interiors of bengal don;t speal Hindi, and dont care to. etc etc…
    I will reply that anyone even me being a Punjabi will like to speak in Punjabi while being in his own state and talking with residents because this is their native language and they feel bounded in that way.
    You mixed local with national issue.

    When you say it is difficult to learn Hindi for people in south, I will say that it was equally difficult for me to learn 4 languages at the same time when I was 7. But when you have to learn them as part of their curriculum, you easily can. And similar terms apply for other ages. We will have to make a start from somewhere.

    Now regarding what you mentioned as –
    …perceptions that many in the north have about the south.
    My reply is, being a well educated Indian first and belonging to a moralistic family, I equally hate those people who make witty remarks on regional basis and I am not the alone. I know lot of such other people like me.
    Who doesn’t want to have a good laugh. You might also have joked with your own mates in light way about people in other region and so did I, but when they happen to be turned into racial and specifically targeted, we all hate them.

    Every literate person respects other despite the barriers like color and cast. All I can say is that you might have bad experience with illiterate population. You rightly said that …who can be physically beautiful, if we care to open our minds and stop having skin colour based prejudice.

    When you ask – If you were born into….would you be just as keen to endorse Hindi?.
    My answer to that is – Yes, I had still been fighting for some common medium and provided, Hindi had such status like today, yes, I had been keen to endorse Hindi.

    One last sentence – No one likes anything to be forced upon.

  17. Hi nitesh

    Yes I agree that Hindi is spoken by more people in India than any other language. However that alone does not justify forceful imposition.

    I am not against the prospect of speaking Hindi as I am more familiar with Hindi than with any other indian language (can speak kannada somewhat fluently and can uderstand punjabi and gujarati). In fact I acknowledge that there would be significant communicative and cultural unity across the country if everyone spoke Hindi…ALONG with their mother otngue and/or the regional language of the area they live in.

    My problem is more with the attitudes of some northerners, for whom hindi is a mother tongue or familiar language. They tend to assume that lack of hindi knowledge or reluctance to speak Hindi or adopt “Hindi” culure is anti-nationalism and therefore these people are not true indians. To these people, my message is – every Indian from every part of India is a true Indian. Speaking Hindi has got absolutely nothing to do with nationalism. I know so so so so so many punjabis who consider themselves punjabi first, and then Indian. They subconsciously refuse to acknowledge the other communcties in India as being equally impt…and they label every one south of delhi as a madrasi…yes, i have experienced such attitudes from urban middle class punjabis…not just the gaav wales. Such punjabi people happen to understand hindi only cos punjabi is relatively similar to hindi, certainly more so than kannada or tamil or oriya or assamese. In my book…such punjabis are also desh drohis….equally anti-nationalistic as any bong or mallu or tamilian who identifies strongly with his regional culture.

    You’re talking purely about the adoption of hindi as a common medium of communication, which I somewhat agree with. But i’m trying to bring out the deeper issues of communal segregation, communal arrogance and chavism that exist in the country…it is these perceptions and attitudes that are deeply connected with the issue of spreading usage/adopton of hindi….you cannot look at language adoption in isolation…with it comes the percieved adoption of Hindi culture.

    I have nothing against punjabis….most of my good friends are punjabis actually, and i’ve lived in punjab too. Perhaps that is why I have indeed seen ample evidence of the punjabi/north indian chauvism towards the rest of india. You may deny it…and you may well be right…you or your family/social circle may not display such attitudes…but it does exist at various levels….much less of course among educated, cultured and open minded people.

    By the same token, I’ll say that other communities in India need to be more understanding too. Every surd isn’t a terrorist..all north indians aren’t materialistic and money minded. Many tamilians I’ve met are very kattar about their culture…almost like the punjus….and they too display a chauvism against other southern indian cultures and indian communities in general.

    Yes I too love a good joke and I ahve enjoyed many witty jokes about the different cultures in the country. However jokes are one thing, but adoption of derrogatory perceptions and beliefs is another thing. Would punjus like it if they were called biharis..i for a fact know that nearly all punjus would hate that…biharis are looked down upon in punjab….similarly…why shud people from karnataka be lebelled madrasis or just south indian. I make it a point never to label someone purely on which state they hail from or which language they speak….i believe people are far more dynamic to be pigeonholed into a strict framework of perceved cultural values and beliefs.

  18. I never was in favor of forceful imposition but a common agreement and so does Indian government seems to be – after all, Indians are famous for their patience :).

    As you said, I also wish that every Indian should be familiar with Hindi and should know its importance. Of course, mother tongue is always the first language in state.

    Regarding the attitude of northies, I also somewhat agree with you that many upper class northies are still haunted with ego problem and it is not very certain to go away for some time. But if you get hurt from such comments then you doesn’t have idea of how South Indian Muslims would have been feeling who are discriminated on caste and color basis. And at the same time, southies are also equally sinisters. On example is them considering northies and specifically Sardars as terrorists. I equally hate such people but at the same time, I always give my words of advice to them, some agree and others leave apart. Of course, we should consider such people as anti-nationalistic who label others and discriminate on the regional basis.

    PS: I address North Indians as northies equivocally as I use southies for South Indians – I hope it doesn’t offend anyone.

  19. India has 23 official languages NOT one:


    The reason for having english as the link:



    Articles on hindi imposition in 1965:

    A question that is often asked is “Why are the Tamils willing to learn English but not Hindi?”

    My answer would be “Why not Swahili ?”

    Even though the answer is actually a question, the answer to my question is the answer to the earlier question too – “No significant use”.

    If the technical journals and other scientific articles and information/knowledge is in Swahili, people will learn it and not English. The same logic can be used for any other language.

    What do we get with Hindi?

    Quite often learning/speaking Hindi is associated with patriotism. Does it mean learning Tamil or any other Indian language is unpatriotic ? or is it lesser Indian language than Hindi ? Why is there such a skewed logic ?

    Hindi helps you to communicate with the majority Indians is another answer. As far as Tamil Nadu is concerned, Tamil is the majority language so its good to know it. If a Tamil, moves out of TN, he should learn the local language of the region and not Hindi. Till then, a mixture of English and a few words can keep him alive in another state. Making Hindi compulsory in TN for the few who travel outside TN is absurd. What is the percentage of Tamils traveling outside TN?

    Now that the jobs are predominantly created in the southern states, will the North Indian in general and Hindi person specifically learn a South Indian language – any one ? or in other words, most Hindi speaking person tend to look for Bangalore, would they learn Kannada ? Shouldn’t they learn Kannada?

    Respect is a two way street, if you can’t learn my language, why should I learn another language ? Unless and until, I see a benefit in learning another language, I don’t intend to.

  20. Hi Vijay

    I have already been to your blog long back ago before writing this post and perhaps, your blog was one of the motivation behind writing this post.

    The test you have written seems to be copied from one of your posts and pasted here.

    I will answer few of your meaningful questions.
    We get a common medium of conversation and communication by learning Hindi. And also a feeling of nationalist than being regionally biased.

    If you think that Timilians don’t move out of TN, you are being trite and don’t know that you ate shadowing future of your mates unintentionally by guiding them in this way.

    Whae you say –
    jobs are predominantly created in the southern states

    I would say that you don’t know about rest of India, what is NCR region, what is there in Gurgaon and Noida and what is going to be there in Chandigarh, Kolkata and Jaipur. You are acting quite naive.

    In fact, it is Indians (or should I say typical Tamilian with full respect to the region) like you who are mis-guiding rest of their countrymen (or Tamilians only?). It would be better if you understand the importance of Nation and the countrymen than asking questions from NRI Tamilians about what are they doing to lift up their language & culture by giving examples of Srilankan militant groups…huh.

  21. When a northerner and a southie needs to know english to compete in India in the main institutes like IIT, IIM, AIIMS – it makes sense to promote English as the common language.

    Each state can promote its own main language.

    ////It would be better if you understand the importance of Nation and the countrymen than asking questions from NRI Tamilians about what are they doing to lift up their language & culture by giving examples of Srilankan militant groups…huh.///

    The LTTE is fighting for its rights as SL Tamils.
    Referring to the letter written by Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M Karunanidhi and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh’s reply to it, Mukherjee said, “So far as India’s role is concerned, we have stated our position very clearly. A solution should be found within the 1)territorial integrity of Sri Lanka
    2)and within the framework of its Constitution,
    3) by addressing the legitimate aspirations of the ethnic group, especially the Tamils,” he added.


    The above article taken from rediff summarizes the “non-negotiable” pose taken up by SL and India.

    point 3) says that the “legitimate aspirations of the Tamils” should be addressed.

    Tamils want a “federal set up with increased power + non-discriminating constitution”. Presently, the constitution accords legally more power/preference to the sinhala buddhists – which is the major grudge.

    The sinhalese are NOT willing to CHANGE the constitution which could pacify the Tamils at the same time, they are NOT willing to let go of the “territorial integrity” – basically, they are NOT willing to negotiate on both issues i.e “more power devolution within present SL + lesser discrimination” or “partition”

  22. ///In fact, it is Indians (or should I say typical Tamilian with full respect to the region) like you who are mis-guiding rest of their countrymen///

    India is a country of many nations – this is something that has been acknowledged by the congress of pre independence and there can NOT be India that exists by destroying the diversity – it is “unity in diversity” and NOT “unity at the expense of diversity”

    ///We get a common medium of conversation and communication by learning Hindi. And also a feeling of nationalist than being regionally biased.///

    hindi is as much “regional” as any other language.

    Something that led to the 1937 and 1965 anti hindi riots.
    When riots can happen in 1937 even under the british rule, it should give a pretty good indication of the seriousness of the issue.

  23. //If you think that Timilians don’t move out of TN, you are being trite and don’t know that you ate shadowing future of your mates unintentionally by guiding them in this way.//

    Well, if that be the case the BIMARU regions would be prosperous with hindi.

  24. (Former Tamil Nadu Chief Minister (1967-1969) C. N. Annadurai was a great orator and writer. He sprinkled his speeches and writings with little stories (fables) to drive home his points. Here is a short story he told to drive home the irrationality of arguments for making Hindi the link language of India.)

    A man had two dogs – a big one and a small one. He wanted his dogs to go in and out of the house freely without him having to keep the house door open all the time. So he built two “trap doors” – one big trap door for the big dog and one small for the small dog. Neighbors who saw these two doors laughed at him and called him an idiot. Why put a big door and a small door? All that was needed was the big door. Both the big and the small dog could use it!

    Indian government’s arguments for making Hindi the official or link language of India are as ridiculous as the need for a big door and a small door for the big dog and the small dog. Indian government agrees that English is needed for communication with the world, and every school in India teaches English after the fifth grade. Then the Indian government says that all of us should know Hindi also in order to communicate amongst ourselves within India. I ask, “Since every school in India teaches English, why can’t it be our link language? Why do Tamils have to study English for communication with the world and Hindi for communications within India? Do we need a big door for the big dog and a small door for the small dog? I say, let the small dog use the big door too!”


  25. Friends,
    I read some of the comments here, but i fail to understand why there is much fight on this isssue. I am a North Indian, speak & write Hindi fluently, can’t speak or understand any Southern Language, but still i won’t like Hindi to be National Language of India because of the simple fact that Hindi is not our language. Tamil, Malayalam and other souther languages are ours. My north Indian friends should understand that our original langauage was Sanskrit not Hindi. And why i say that some of southern languages are ours because these have striking similarities with Sanskrit. Although we (the younger generation of India) don’t understand Sanskrit, but i think that no one (apart from English worshipers) will oppose Sanskrit as National Language! What you guys say? And one more thing, although English has become a language of success, still i think that we Indians should not glorify or choose it in the fight of Hindu verses Tamil or any other language!
    Apart from it, one of my friend here mentioned that Gandhiji was killed by a Hindi fanatics, i think that he is misinformed, because Nathuram Godase was Maharashtrian and was Marathi speaker. Marathi speakers too take pride in their language as much as Tamilians in Tamil.

  26. Friends,
    I am North Indian and hence Hindi speaker.But I think I can’t take it for granted that eveyone I meet must know Hindi.Entire problem is solved if we try to put ourselves in other’s shoes.
    Nitesh, I put forth a scenario to you.A child takes birth in a remote village in Kerala or Tamil Nadu. His / her entire life is spend there,surrounded by people speaking local language….teachers, friends, shopkeepers,parents etc…. he / she has really no need to learn Hindi or even English….now tell mw how can you expect such a person to know Hindi.Anyone learns only that language which he/she needs for communication.South Indians living in Delhi know very good Hindi….why…simply because they need it for communicating…as simple as that.
    Hence expecting people to speak Hindi irrespective of their background is foolhardy and unjustified as well.
    As far as I am concerned I feel very obliged to a non-HIndi person if he/she communicates with me in Hindi. He / she has really has no official/moral obligation to do so.
    Guys, just thinking form other’s viewpoint will solve lots of problems being faced by our society.


  27. Hi Manish
    It seems that you have taken the discussion in wrong sense. We aren’t talking about picking up with a communication medium which is what your given problem about but common medium of communication in one country.
    You are right that one learns whatever is provided in his surrounding and that is why this discussion is all about that surrounding. Why not we can have one unanimous common language in such environment?

  28. Nitesh, you asked for one common language.But then who is going to decide which medium we should have?Just because we Hindi speakers are in majority doesn’t mean that it gives us right to decide it.Isn’t it?It will be nothing short of dictatorship.
    Having said that, I don’t believe that South Indians are averse to Hindi. It was only due to Lal Bahadur Shastri and other North Indian politicians’ stubbornness to impose Hindi that South Indians fought against such lingual dictatorship.Just think that even a great person like Lal Bahadur was blinded by this lingual bigotry.But see what Hindi movie songs have done in last 10 years or so.What entire Indian govt machinery failed to do, movie songs have done easily…today Hindi songs are listened in many Southern cities and towns too.
    So what does it convey….if language is imposed, target society will definitely and naturally resist and they have every right to do so…but if language is spread by cultural means people will certainly accept it.

    With regards

  29. Manish you sound like a dictator when you speak against a former prime-minister of India. A PM doesn’t get elected without any reason or support nor does he think against nation’s interest.

    Movies are just one dimension or example to prove that imposition never succeed and I agree with that. You are talking bureaucratically over this issue by saying – if language is spread by cultural means people will certainly accept it after your previous comment.

    By mentioning North Indian politicians’ stubbornness, you appear to be against North Indians no matter from which region you belong to. You yourself are biased on regional bases and I don’t think there is any reason to proceed with this discussion.

    Of course, I am also not in favor of imposition but still, common agreed upon conclusion is a must for such issues and till then there is no harm in accepting a language spoken by majority as national language.

  30. Hi Ravi

    In the same graph, you can see that majority of Indians speak Hindi language than any other individual language.

    I couldn’t understand, what other measure required to accept this language as first language?

  31. The problem with India is simple. India is a democracy, and India did not need this in 1947 and still does not. Simply, without this India would have crushed Pakistan on Both sides in 1971. It would have used the Airforce in 1962 to teach the Chinese enemy a lesson they would not ever forget. India would have never allowed the inferior in every way Chinese to support rebels in India. And this debate would not be occuring. Hindi is the national language of India. Regional languages are there but they have no right to be even be considered national. Tamil Nadu could not survive without the union. And neither could any of the states.

  32. Tamils are misguided, Tamil has loan words from Sanskrit. Tamil is Dravidian. Hindi is the official heir of Sanskrit. Tamil has nothing in common with Sanskrit grammar or origin. English has even less in common with Tamil.

  33. hi all.. I too accept hindi occupies majority of the places. so according to ur views if majority of peoples speak hindi then it should be accepted as national language.. I ask u one question. english is used more then hindi..so shall we make english as our national language. dont speak about majority.. so according to ur point of view 42% of poeples speak hindi.. where is rest. they are also indians. so hindi should be national language when 100% of peoples able to read,speak,write hindi.. upto that this topic is useless

  34. Nitesh, I appreciate your wish to have a common language for communication. I wish too that there is one in India. Unfortunately in India you cannot have one. Your choice for that is Hindi. You have every right to proclaim your wish and choice. But the arguments that you put forth for your choice exposes your naivete and immaturity. The framers of our constitution refrained from declaring Hindi as National Language. Please distinguish between National and Official. Till date no one have defined what a National Language is. In the Indian context none can. In Germany, France, Spain, England etc etc, only one language is spoken throughout the country and if any other language is spoken it is only by the immigrants who are negligibly few. Hence those countries can define and declare a National Language. But India is multilinguistic state. Majority of Indians can speak Hindi but do not have it as their Mother Tongue. Moreover there are numerous variations of Hindi. Even if Delhi Hindi is accepted as Standard, your criterion is not strong to have it as a National Language. Many North Indians, Gujarati, Sindhi, Rajasthani, Punjabis etc are settled in Tamil Nadu. They first learnt Tamil and communicate with others in Tamil. They never imposed their language on Tamilians. In Tamil Nadu, Tamil is the regional language and a Tamilian is in no way obliged to speak another language than Tamil. For your comfort you cannot expect another to bend. You need to be broad minded and accept reality and facts. Golden rule is ‘Do unto others what you want others to do unto you’. You are not obliged to speak Tamil in Punjab. So is the converse. Please try to adjust. Do not jump to conclusions. I trust you will agree with me.

  35. no civilized multilingual country follows such a system whether it be Canada, Mauritius or Switzerland. This is a crude national integration strategy ..taking the language of the “majority” and plonking it on everybody else. This is not based on a sustainable win-win paradigm and will always create some kind of a counter-reaction i.e destabilizatiion or encourage English even more …

    Hindi if at all spreads only based on the law of convenience i.e because it is closely related to some Indian languages. It will even create a situation that will bring it to conflict with UN and other intenational principles. National integration based on mutual respect and not one half always trying to destroy the other half. Unity in diversity ! That is what India is about !

  36. Also such a system creates a peculiar situation where one part would have three (or two without English) languages and the other would have two (or one). Show me one other country which follows such a system ? This is a double advantage for a hindi speaker (because Hindi is his mother tongue and he has natural fluency in it and a double disadvantage for a non-hindi speaker. Only a neutral language should be the official language.

  37. Guys please end to this, India don’t have any national language yet. India recognizes 27 languages as official languages that includes all regional language including Hindi and English, in center English and Hindi are the language to communicate between the states, Hindi is the communicative language between center and some north and West Indian states, and English is the communicative language between center and east like Bengal, Assam etc and southern states. English and Hindi have special recognition in the center, other then this noting else to do with Hindi. If you say Hindi is the symbol of unity it’s not near to true, the dominant culture shown by Hindi speaking people don’t prove that. Actually speaking unity in diversity is a person when moves to other states his primary focus is to be among local people and learn local language first, stop being an alien. Please make use of Google and Wikipedia for knowing more on this topic.
    Concentrate on development,
    You may be a Hindi or Kannada, first learn global language like English, and your views should be concentrated on development of state and country and on rural education as there votes counts.

  38. We kerala people are shame to speak hindi.We consider it is the language of bihar and UP.wE RESPECT Tamil because malayalam derived from Tamil.Tamil and malayalam are 90% same.We learn English for communication with outsiders

  39. It is foolishness to impose Hindi on Tamil.Because Tamil is more than 10000 years old language.It is one of the old language in the world along with Hebrew.Tamil is official language of 3 countries.India,sri lanka,singapore.In Malaysia it is a major language.Tamil is mother of all Dravidian languages.People from andhra pradesh,karnataka,kerala can easly undersatant Tamil.Totally 250 million people in south india can speak Tamil.In world wide 300 million people can understand Tamil.India is a diverse nation.Let hindi people speak hindi,maratis speak marati,kannada speak kannada,tamil speak tamil,bengali speak bengla.All india can speak engkish each other.Imposition of language is not Democratic.Be proud to be Indian.Learn your language and English and respect other languages.Be good indian.India Vazhka

  40. Dont know why Hindi speakers feel proud of a language brought by Muslim invaders. Marathi, Kannada, Telugu, Sanskrit and also Tamil etc are all native to India. Urdu and Hindi are not. I dont say dont learn any language, but it is shameful that these foreign languages be imposed in the name of ‘official language’.
    It is shameful that the country adopted a Muslim language like Hindi and disposed of pure Indian language like Sanskrit. Now they want to destroy the other languages.
    Hindi speakers,your true language is not Hindi. These have dumped on you by the Muslims. Israel kept its heritage by adopting Hebrew. India lost its heritage with Hindi and Urdu brought by the Muslim invaders.

  41. Hi Nitesh, After reading your piece as well as the responses, I feel that the only true national symbol manifested as a language is Samskritam. Bharatavarsha has been spoken of and praised in literature of Samskritam right from the oldest Rigvedic age! As one of the contributors in the responses rightly mentioned, Bharatavarsha was never a Union until Imperialists like the Moghuls and British looted us. Even though we adopted a Union of States called Bharat (India), our founding constituionalists were sensible to understand our diversity and hence did not make Hindi or Hindustani alone as the National Language. Moreover, the commonly spoken “Hindi” is not real Hindi but Hindustani. The real Hindi which sounds so very much like Samkskritam (example: Hindi used in and taught by Hindi prachar samitis)is not spoken by majority of North Indians. Hindustani which is a bastardised tongue of Urdu and Hindi is what is commonly spoken. So, please stop pushing Hindustani;unless you are referring to the real Hindi which is sanskritised. I fully endorse your feeling that we Bharatiyas need to have a common-official-national language; and let that be our highly cultured Samskritam. Almost all Bharatiya languages have close ties to Samskritam linguistically. If Isreal can revive a dead Hebrew language into a daily spoken and transacted language, Samskritam definitely can be similarly made popular. Mind you, there are still some pockets in Karnataka and some north Indian states where Samskritam is used commonly (ofcourse due to outreach efforts). Most of us Bharatiyas are more willing to learn Samskritam if made popular rather than Hindustani presently masquarading as Hindi. This is because of our age-old link and relationship with Samskritam and not Hindustani.

    Finally, if you desire one national language which can assimilate and resonate better with all Bharatiyas, it is Samskritam. I recognise potential resistance to this by certain citizens who associate Samskrtam to Hindu religion etc etc. To such people, I say that Samskritam is beyond religion as it was used by non-hindus in the bygone eras. Well… it should be remembered that Bharatiyas who under force, converted to other religions and adopted other cultures we originally Bharatiyas long before invasions. So, they are very much our brothers and sisters. Hence, they should also give up cultural slavery of our invaders and take steps to learn Samskritam. If all this happens, only then can we have ONE National Language. Thanks for your time to read this.

  42. hello all and esp.. guatam.

    1. Hindi is not the national language but only the official language of India along with English according the constitution.

    2a. Do you understand the difference between “most number of votes” and “majority vote”? Hindi is the mother tounge of only 40% of indians. So you cannot force it on the remaining 60%. Though the above mentioned 60% is split between non-hindi languages, the fact is that they are the bigger lot. (ie. tamil, malayalam, tulu, kannada, telugu, kodagu, marathi, gondi, munda, lambda, kuruk, oriya, bangla, manipuri, bodo, assomia, nepali, dogri, kashmiri, shina, punjabi, gujarati, kutchi, sindhi and konkani, urdu and sanskrit).

    2b. So Yes, Hindi has the major share but NOT the majority share. For that more than 50% population should speak hindi as their mother tounge. Which is not the case as of today. So Hindi doesnt even have a case by democracy.

    3. Now, if you consider the age, ease, richness and beauty of the language, then i will have to say Tamil, bengali, telugu and sanskrit are far far ahead than Hindi in those terms. Infact for that matter even malayalam which is an amazing belend of tamil and sanskrit is great, but is would loose out on the age factor.

    4a. There are only two langauges which can truely be national in all senses. Sanskrit and English. ALL other indian languages are limited is some sense or the other, either my region, community or semantics/phonetics.

    4b. Both the above have plus and minus. Sanskrit is the “one of the most” oldest languages of human civilization. Its grammar and structre is unparalled. It has the most unambigous syntax and semantics. Hence Paninian grammar is used in artificial intelligence/ real lanaguage processor applications. Sanskrit is a symbol of indias heritage and culture. It is common to all Indians. Even tamils. I say this not only because Tamil has sanskrit influence, but for the fact the the opposite is true too. Many do not know that there is a substratum of saskrit etymology which is dravidian. So just like tamil has taken loan words galore from sanskrit, sanskrit has a lot of root words which are dravidian.

    Sanskrit is also advanced in many fields and has great literature wealth. But sanskrit is spoken only by megre numbers and I should say is complex. But it surely can be revived, like Hebrew. Look at it this way, atleast saskrit is live in some sense or the other and spoken by a few still. Hebrew wasnt even there at the end of WWII. It was put together by the jewish linguists by sewing together different semi-spoken versions from the jewish diaspora, based on the theoritical knowledge from their scriptures. If that could be done, then I am sure we can do a lot better with sanskrit. By making sanskrit the national language, we will give it the place it deserves. Please note, i just said national language, like a national symbol of our culture and heritage. just like our national bird, animal, etc. No force to use it officially. It can be one of the official lanaguages along with Hindi and English, to choose from by personal choice.

    4c. English on the other hand is easy, already popular in India and around the world. It is advanced and very agile and growing in vocabulary by adopting and adapting. I hardly need to say anymore about English as we all know its place in our lives. But the fact remains that it is a foreign language and not indian at all. It also is the leftover of a colonial era. We can surely make English the national language, but iam sure even those indians who speak english at home like the anglo-indians and the many metrosexual angrez-ki-aulats will have a consience bite doing so.

    5. Though Hindi is very popular all over india and is increasingly understood by 70% of indians though not spoken by, I still have to rule it out for national language. But i surely agree that it should continue to be the official language of the Union government along with English as it is today. It will be a link langauge amoung officialdom and amoung the military. Hindi thus surely has a role to play in integration. Nothing more is needed.

    Sanskrit – National Language, as a respect to our culture and heritage.
    Hindi and English – Official languages of the Union, link language for Union-State, State-to-State and Military communication.
    Regional Laguages, Hindi and English – Offical langauges for their respective states. States may choose as they wish.
    Regional language and English – medium of education for primary and higher education.

  43. FUTURE LANGUAGE\NATURAL EVOLUTION: This discussion may seem important now, but is actually futile. ‘coz languages are never stagnant. They keep evolving, proliferating and growing according to the needs of their carriers, us humans. As humans migrate to other places, mix with other groups , communicate with other civilizations their language keeps changing. The best way to unite Bharat is to let people mix as they want. Give them all freedom to do so. Thus a common language will evolve natuaraly. It will be a really slow process but is a much better and natural solution. Certainly a better option than an artificial solution created by force and law.

    With such mixing a common language will emerge all across india in about 200-300 years. There wont be any regional langauges. Only Dialects. The common language will be called Hindi (as in language of Hind / India / Bharat), but will only be so in name. By then the language would have evolved beyond recognition with many many dialects. As i see it, each regional dialect of this future common langauge will have 4 substrati. The botton root layer will be formed by todays regional languages ( erstwhile regional languages if you look at it from the future). The second stratum will be of the dominant regional language of the area (again, erstwhile dominant regional languages if you look at it from the future). The third will be of sanskrit. And the fourth top layer will be of the influence history, neighbourhood factor and trade relations (ie. english, persian, arabic and chinese).

    for example, The dialect of this future common language ( called hindi by name) spoken in kerala will have substratums of malayalam (todays regional language); tamil (todays dominant regional language of the area); sanskrit/hindi ( todays dominant language of the nation) and the historical & trade influence of (english, dutch, protugese, arabic, hebrew, latin etc).
    Another example would be say assam. where the future tounge would be a mix of the local assomese/bodo, the dominant bengali in the area and hindi/sanskrit with influences from english, chinese, tibetian, etc.
    All this depends on past, present and future events of population mix, match and migration.

    But one thing is sure. A common tounge will evolve as the world gets more connected and smaller.

  44. I dont understand why you guys are wasting so much time on a language when attention is required on several other important, critical factors … poverty,unempoyment, world peace, global warming etc. Language is just a means of communication … the english,dutch,french etc traded without knowing any local language.
    Business and love doesnt need any language. Japan, China and Russia, most of the european natons dont speak english fully … still they do business globally with broken english.

    Every body is biased towards their own family,city,state,country … and so towards their language. You cant get anything by challenging these … India is biggest democratic country in the world, if you can understand what deocracy is then you will not be wasting time on all these things.

  45. Hi,
    I was just going through your blog and was surprised and pained to see the fanatism that exists within the people of our own country.Dear Gautam thanks for all the facts and figures provided by you but we all know according to article 343 and 351 of indian constitution ,hindi is not the national language so stop propagating that. It is commonly referred to as the national language of India and we have no problem with that.
    Please note that not all south Indians have anything against hindi. infact many of us love that language.It is only the fanatic Tamils who have a problem with hindi.Infact Tamils seem to be having a problem with all the other indian languages but Tamil.They go to another state for employment and refuse to learn the language of that state.They have the audacity to disrepect the language and culture of other state.They have the arrogance to say that they do not want to be included in the Indian union if they have to learn Hindi.How fanatic can one get ?So why waste time and energy on such people ? Anyways goodluck.

  46. Just Responding to the above post to reveal what a fanatic means.

    Speech given by Nathuram Godse in his trial for killing Gandhi. Please do read it carefully and it will reveal to one and all who is the real fanatic and the concept of fanaticism.

    Born in a devotional Brahmin family, I instinctively came to revere Hindu religion, Hindu history and Hindu culture. I had, therefore, been intensely proud of Hinduism as a whole. As I grew up I developed a tendency to free thinking unfettered by any superstitious allegiance to any isms, political or religious. That is why I worked actively for the eradication of untouchability and the caste system based on birth alone. I openly joined anti-caste movements and maintained that all Hindus were of equal status as to rights, social and religious and should be considered high or low on merit alone and not through the accident of birth in a particular caste or profession. I used publicly to take part in organized anti-caste dinners in which thousands of Hindus, Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Chamars and Bhangis participated. We broke the caste rules and dined in the company of each other.

    I have read the speeches and writings of Dadabhai Nairoji, Vivekanand, Gokhale, Tilak, along with the books of ancient and modern history of India and some prominent countries like England, France, America and’ Russia. Moreover I studied the tenets of Socialism and Marxism. But above all I studied very closely whatever Veer Savarkar and Gandhiji had written and spoken, as to my mind these two ideologies have contributed more to the moulding of the thought and action of the Indian people during the last thirty years or so, than any other single factor has done.

    All this reading and thinking led me to believe it was my first duty to serve Hindudom and Hindus both as a patriot and as a world citizen. To secure the freedom and to safeguard the just interests of some thirty crores (300 million) of Hindus would automatically constitute the freedom and the well being of all India, one fifth of human race. This conviction led me naturally to devote myself to the Hindu Sanghtanist ideology and programme, which alone, I came to believe, could win and preserve the national independence of Hindustan, my Motherland, and enable her to render true service to humanity as well.

    Since the year 1920, that is, after the demise of Lokamanya Tilak, Gandhiji’s influence in the Congress first increased and then became supreme. His activities for public awakening were phenomenal in their intensity and were reinforced by the slogan of truth and non-violence, which he paraded ostentatiously before the country. No sensible or enlightened person could object to those slogans. In fact there is nothing new or original in them. They are implicit in every constitutional public movement. But it is nothing but a mere dream if you imagine that the bulk of mankind is, or can ever become, capable of scrupulous adherence to these lofty principles in its normal life from day to day. In fact, honour, duty and love of one’s own kith and kin and country might often compel us to disregard non-violence and to use force. I could never conceive that an armed resistance to an aggression is unjust. I would consider it a religious and moral duty to resist and, if possible, to overpower such an enemy by use of force. [In the Ramayana] Rama killed Ravana in a tumultuous fight and relieved Sita. [In the Mahabharata], Krishna killed Kansa to end his wickedness; and Arjuna had to fight and slay quite a number of his friends and relations including the revered Bhishma because the latter was on the side of the aggressor. It is my firm belief that in dubbing Rama, Krishna and Arjuna as guilty of violence, the Mahatma betrayed a total ignorance of the springs of human action.

    In more recent history, it was the heroic fight put up by Chhatrapati Shivaji that first checked and eventually destroyed the Muslim tyranny in India. It was absolutely essentially for Shivaji to overpower and kill an aggressive Afzal Khan, failing which he would have lost his own life. In condemning history’s towering warriors like Shivaji, Rana Pratap and Guru Gobind Singh as misguided patriots, Gandhiji has merely exposed his self-conceit. He was, paradoxical, as it may appear, a violent pacifist who brought untold calamities on the country in the name of truth and non-violence, while Rana Pratap, Shivaji and the Guru will remain enshrined in the hearts of their countrymen forever for the freedom they brought to them.

    The accumulating provocation of thirty-two years, culminating in his last pro-Muslim fast, at last goaded me to the conclusion that the existence of Gandhi should be brought to an end immediately. Gandhi had done very well in South Africa to uphold the rights and well being of the Indian community there. But when he finally returned to India he developed a subjective mentality under which he alone was to be the final judge of what was right or wrong. If the country wanted his leadership, it had to accept his infallibility; if it did not, he would stand aloof from the Congress and carry on his own way. Against such an attitude there can be no halfway house. Either Congress had to surrender its will to his and had to be content with playing second fiddle to all his eccentricity, whimsicality, metaphysics and primitive vision, or it had to carry on without him. He alone was the Judge of everyone and everything; he was the master brain guiding the civil disobedience movement; no other could know the technique of that movement. He alone knew when to begin and when to withdraw it. The movement might succeed or fail, it might bring untold disaster and political reverses but that could make no difference to the Mahatma’s infallibility. ‘A Satyagrahi can never fail’ was his formula for declaring his own infallibility and nobody except himself knew what a Satyagrahi is.

    Thus, the Mahatma became the judge and jury in his own cause. These childish insanities and obstinacies, coupled with a most severe austerity of life, ceaseless work and lofty character made Gandhi formidable and irresistible. Many people thought that his politics were irrational but they had either to withdraw from the Congress or place their intelligence at his feet to do with, as he liked. In a position of such absolute irresponsibility Gandhi was guilty of blunder after blunder, failure after failure, disaster after disaster.

    Gandhi’s pro-Muslim policy is blatantly in his perverse attitude on the question of the national language of India. It is quite obvious that Hindi has the most prior claim to be accepted as the premier language. In the beginning of his career in India, Gandhi gave a great impetus to Hindi but as he found that the Muslims did not like it, he became a champion of what is called Hindustani. Everybody in India knows that there is no language called Hindustani; it has no grammar; it has no vocabulary. It is a mere dialect; it is spoken, but not written. It is a bastard tongue and crossbreed between Hindi and Urdu, and not even the Mahatma’s sophistry could make it popular. But in his desire to please the Muslims he insisted that Hindustani alone should be the national language of India. His blind followers, of course, supported him and the so-called hybrid language began to be used. The charm and purity of the Hindi language was to be prostituted to please the Muslims. All his experiments were at the expense of the Hindus.

    From August 1946 onwards the private armies of the Muslim League began a massacre of the Hindus. The then Viceroy, Lord Wavell, though distressed at what was happening, would not use his powers under the Government of India Act of 1935 to prevent the rape, murder and arson. The Hindu blood began to flow from Bengal to Karachi with some retaliation by the Hindus. The Interim Government formed in September was sabotaged by its Muslim League members right from its inception, but the more they became disloyal and treasonable to the government of which they were a part, the greater was Gandhi’s infatuation for them. Lord Wavell had to resign as he could not bring about a settlement and he was succeeded by Lord Mountbatten. King Log was followed by King Stork.

    The Congress, which had boasted of its nationalism and socialism, secretly accepted Pakistan literally at the point of the bayonet and abjectly surrendered to Jinnah. India was vivisected and one-third of the Indian territory became foreign land to us from August 15, 1947. Lord Mountbatten came to be described in Congress circles as the greatest Viceroy and Governor-General this country ever had. The official date for handing over power was fixed for June 30, 1948, but Mountbatten with his ruthless surgery gave us a gift of vivisected India ten months in advance. This is what Gandhi had achieved after thirty years of undisputed dictatorship and this is what Congress party calls ‘freedom’ and ‘peaceful transfer of power’. The Hindu-Muslim unity bubble was finally burst and a theocratic state was established with the consent of Nehru and his crowd and they have called ‘freedom won by them with sacrifice’ – whose sacrifice? When top leaders of Congress, with the consent of Gandhi, divided and tore the country – which we consider a deity of worship – my mind was filled with direful anger.

    One of the conditions imposed by Gandhi for his breaking of the fast unto death related to the mosques in Delhi occupied by the Hindu refugees. But when Hindus in Pakistan were subjected to violent attacks he did not so much as utter a single word to protest and censure the Pakistan Government or the Muslims concerned. Gandhi was shrewd enough to know that while undertaking a fast unto death, had he imposed for its break some condition on the Muslims in Pakistan, there would have been found hardly any Muslims who could have shown some grief if the fast had ended in his death. It was for this reason that he purposely avoided imposing any condition on the Muslims. He was fully aware of from the experience that Jinnah was not at all perturbed or influenced by his fast and the Muslim League hardly attached any value to the inner voice of Gandhi.

    Gandhi is being referred to as the Father of the Nation. But if that is so, he had failed his paternal duty inasmuch as he has acted very treacherously to the nation by his consenting to the partitioning of it. I stoutly maintain that Gandhi has failed in his duty. He has proved to be the Father of Pakistan. His inner-voice, his spiritual power and his doctrine of non-violence of which so much is made of, all crumbled before Jinnah’s iron will and proved to be powerless.

    Briefly speaking, I thought to myself and foresaw I shall be totally ruined, and the only thing I could expect from the people would be nothing but hatred and that I shall have lost all my honour, even more valuable than my life, if I were to kill Gandhiji. But at the same time I felt that the Indian politics in the absence of Gandhiji would surely be proved practical, able to retaliate, and would be powerful with armed forces. No doubt, my own future would be totally ruined, but the nation would be saved from the inroads of Pakistan. People may even call me and dub me as devoid of any sense or foolish, but the nation would be free to follow the course founded on the reason which I consider to be necessary for sound nation-building. After having fully considered the question, I took the final decision in the matter, but I did not speak about it to anyone whatsoever. I took courage in both my hands and I did fire the shots at Gandhiji on 30th January 1948, on the prayer-grounds of Birla House.

    I do say that my shots were fired at the person whose policy and action had brought rack and ruin and destruction to millions of Hindus. There was no legal machinery by which such an offender could be brought to book and for this reason I fired those fatal shots.

    I bear no ill will towards anyone individually but I do say that I had no respect for the present government owing to their policy, which was unfairly favourable towards the Muslims. But at the same time I could clearly see that the policy was entirely due to the presence of Gandhi. I have to say with great regret that Prime Minister Nehru quite forgets that his preachings and deeds are at times at variances with each other when he talks about India as a secular state in season and out of season, because it is significant to note that Nehru has played a leading role in the establishment of the theocratic state of Pakistan, and his job was made easier by Gandhi’s persistent policy of appeasement towards the Muslims.

    I now stand before the court to accept the full share of my responsibility for what I have done and the judge would, of course, pass against me such orders of sentence as may be considered proper. But I would like to add that I do not desire any mercy to be shown to me, nor do I wish that anyone else should beg for mercy on my behalf. My confidence about the moral side of my action has not been shaken even by the criticism levelled against it on all sides. I have no doubt that honest writers of history will weigh my act and find the true value thereof some day in future.


  47. Gautam & Swathi – I strongly agree with you.

    Hi All,

    40% Indians speak Hindi, so hindi is declared as National Language. Now your qestion is it os only 40%, then why should other 60% people be forced to learn it !
    Answer is: Take a scenario, When there are 3 parties, Party-1 has got 40% votes, party-2 got 30% & Party-3 got 30% votes, then who will be the ruler ?? Obviously Party-1. And now government (party-1) passes GOs (Gov Orders), 100% of the people should follow those.
    It’s as simple as that. This is democracy. Things will always be done with the option of majority people’s choice and it may not be Ok for 100% of people.

    To whoever spoken abt Const: Please don’t speak of constituency when you don’t know properly how the constituency will be amended for any new passes. It’s always done with the option of majority people’s choice.

    All Tamilians: You always say you don’t need any other language to learn. It’s upto you till where you go unless it doesn’t effect others. But When you come to other states in India, don’t blame people bcoz they don’t know English or Tamil and you are not able to manage things there without any person (Friend) who knows Hindi.Obviously if you go to shops or Auto wala etc they can’t speak English for you. First you should blame yourself coz you didn’t learn Hindi. This is all reason there should be one common language in India for communication.

    And when one is not able to learn depending on where he born & brought (one has given as Example abt kerala Village) it’s acceptable but when he comes to other places & there he feels it is necessary and he has a chance to learn, then try to learn Hindi.

    But please don’t have a mindset like Tamil people to avoid a National Language intentionally.

    Northis: You should not blame people in south who doesn’t know hindi when you are not able to manage your stay in south, bcoz Only educated people know Hindi there, you should try to cope up with them with others help. Obviously if Hindi not used in your native place how do you learn hindi. But if you stay in Hyderabad or Bangalore I don’t think you will find a language problem there bcoz most of the people (even Shop keepers & Auti waalas etc..) speak Hindi well there.

    Narasimha Reddy

  48. Firstly, somehow people are taking the basic focus away…The question is not in learning Hindi or any other language be it Arabic/Urdu/Japanese/Korean/French by choice (that’s always welcome for any person)..The real question is that You don’t need to know Hindi to be counted as an Indian and there is no compulsion on anyone to learn Hindi as a language.

    40% Indians speak Hindi, so hindi is declared as National Language. Now your qestion is it os only 40%, then why should other 60% people be forced to learn it !
    Your Answer is: Take a scenario, When there are 3 parties, Party-1 has got 40% votes, party-2 got 30% & Party-3 got 30% votes, then who will be the ruler ?? Obviously Party-1. And now government (party-1) passes GOs (Gov Orders), 100% of the people should follow those.
    It’s as simple as that. This is democracy. Things will always be done with the option of majority people’s choice and it may not be Ok for 100% of people.

    My Answer Is: This is not Democracy. I think you got it wrong. Does this mean then if tomorrow, majority of Indians want a nation based on Hindu religion, you will go for it?? Your understanding of Democracy is “Dictatorial Democracy where the Majority inflict Dictatorship on the Minority”..India never ever had that tradition. So lets keep it that way..And the Government has passed an order stating that unless all the states agree upon a common language, it will not be adopted.

    Your Answer:
    To whoever spoken abt Const: Please don’t speak of constituency when you don’t know properly how the constituency will be amended for any new passes. It’s always done with the option of majority people’s choice.

    My Answer:
    Already explained above. Democratic Democracy has already been implemented in India. So its already done and dusted.

    All Tamilians: You always say you don’t need any other language to learn. It’s upto you till where you go unless it doesn’t effect others. But When you come to other states in India, don’t blame people bcoz they don’t know English or Tamil and you are not able to manage things there without any person (Friend) who knows Hindi.Obviously if you go to shops or Auto wala etc they can’t speak English for you. First you should blame yourself coz you didn’t learn Hindi. This is all reason there should be one common language in India for communication.

    My Answer:
    No Tamil Guy says that..All they say is that, “Please don’t lecture me on Patriotism/Nationalism/etc/etc…If I need to learn Hindi or Sindhi or Urdu, I will learn of my own will and choice and necessity”
    There is no problem in not learning Hindi in a globalised world..All this communication with people from all over india is happening in English and everyone is fine with it, so why this Phony Lingual based Nationalism? I simply don’t understand from where the “Insecurity” is coming in from..In your day to day work, simply ask yourself which language are you using the most..The Newspaper, The News, The Internet, The Workplace, The Rail Ticket forms, The Exam papers, The books you read, The Movies you watch..

    Perfectly agree with you and I am on your side when someone goes to another city and complains that people don’t speak English/Tamil. I have never seen any Tamil person like that so far in my life. Either they return back or they shut up and start learning Hindi in other cities of residence for communication. They don’t crib about it all the time and complain without acting..

    However, its been more of the other case, where people of different lingua franca upon internal migration to other cities in india, do not want to learn the local language even after staying there for 20 years. Would Indians dare to do the same outside India when going to America or other countries? Look at whats happening in Mumbai with the thackerays and in Bangalore with the Kannada movement..so its an indian wide spread characteristic and does not apply to a particular lingual group alone

    Your Answer:
    But please don’t have a mindset like Tamil people to avoid a National Language intentionally.

    My Answer:
    That’s an outdated mindset which no longer applies to Tamil People..The intentions of Tamils is simple and clear..We learn Tamil/English and if required will learn Hindi based on each person’s necessity/will/choice/circumstance.
    If you learnt Hindi/French/Bengali or Esperanto, thats great and good for you..the more the merrier..I dont understand why you are worried for an other person’s choice??

    Your View:
    But if you stay in Hyderabad or Bangalore I don’t think you will find a language problem there bcoz most of the people (even Shop keepers & Auti waalas etc..) speak Hindi well there.

    My View:
    Everything comes out of economic need and Money..People speak a language for economic progress…The example you quoted is perfect..So good for them…It was their personal choice..

    In India,
    Mumbai: Bus boards written only in Marathi(Devanagiri Numerals)..only in the side boards, its written in English…ooops, did i miss my bus to East Bandra already???

    Bangaluru: Bus boards written only in Kannada

    Kochin: Bus boards written only in Malayalam

    Chennai: Bus boards written in English/Tamil

    Delhi: Bus boards written in Hindi/English

    Kolkata: Bus boards written in Bengali

    The facts are clear..You judge for yourself, which city has opened itself for others…

    Common people in a globalised world with so many benefits with English, please absorb English…its given India the Economic push..You are able to gather so much knowledge/information with people all over the world..Dont restrict yourself to a Regional Language from the Global Perspective..in this case Hindi..
    Embrace English and your local Language..The Rest can wait and can be learn’t later based on Necessity..

  49. Nitesh Gautam-

    Interesting discussion here. Being Bengali, my native language is the closest one can get to real spoken Hindi. Despite being able to speak the so-called “national language” very fluently, I strongly oppose its imposition on states that do not have anything to do with Hindi.

    In any case, Bollywood has ensured that many Indians except those in the South, are able to communicate basic Hindi to make a Hindi-speaker comfortable. How much more do you expect non-Hindi speakers to bend over backwards?

    Besides, having extensive exposure to North Indians, I don’t think the official strand of Hindi taught in school curriculum is spoken by them at all. Almost all Hindi speakers (except those from UP and Bihar) I run into speak a colloquial, hybridizied form of Hindi which deviates far from official, standardized Hindi.

    In practice, the Hindi spoken by an average Hindi-speaker is infused with a lot of Urdu words, Punjabi, Haryanvi slang, “mother sister” expletives and lots of invented double-meaning expressions which don’t make any sense to non-native Hindi speakers. Why do you think we should put up with that?

    The situation, becomes thus, the imposition of North Indian culture on other states, which is simply unacceptable for a pluralist society like India. We believe in building a multi-cultural, multi-lingual and tolerant country. Why can’t you see it is you staunch Hindi zealots and your aggressive stance on Hindi, that is standing in the way? For a change, why don’t more of you learn a regional language and not stick to your bigoted stance on Hindi?

    I believe schools in all North Indian states should have the option to learn a third regional language just as schools in other states have Hindi as third language.

    The reality is a majority of Hindi-speakers really do not want to learn regional languages. They consider regional languages inferior to Hindi. The same gesture in turn, is reciprocated by non-Hindi speakers.

    It must be clear to you neither party would want to compromise their language preferences in any way, the only solution for everyone therefore, is to learn English and bury the discussions.

  50. ???????

    What to do when someone don’t like English as it is foreign. The discussion is so far so good. The Tamil sentiment is meaningful. And i insist on not just learning a single language Hindi but all the Indian regional languages are the valuable property of that community and India as a whole, and as per we come across them we should learn them with utmost
    respect and love as it is a part of integral India.

    So we need to learn all Indian languages and not just one as per time and interest.

    So as long as u r an Indian it doesn’t matter what Indian language we use as per time and place.

    So the choice is urs and only urs.

    when we talk of education there must be at least three four languages from childhood as its easy learning while u r a child.

    Now the question is what language should a person from another country use in India for communication.

    The most simplest answer will be English. But i discard the choice English as the single language to use as it is foreign and a left over by the inhuman British traders who looted India for centuries. How could we praise our looters. Those rapper and decoets.

    Those who come to India for the purpose of looting us.
    How could we respect those past years of shame and disglory.

    As; if we go to china they treat us like Chinese, if we go to America they treat us like Americans.

    In the same way if they come to our home we really need to treat them somewhat in Indian way rather than treating them like the Britain.

    We r not Britain but India. then what is the proof that we r India.

    We just can’t say that if french come we will treat them in french and if German come like Germans.

    So the point is that we need to become Indians.

    Now if Tamilians say that if they come to TN we serve them like Tamils and if they come to ur state u decide urs..

    Then two things can be said
    either they don’t believe in national integrity

    or they are more than neccessary proud to be tamils

    or both.

    To such a extent that they r ready to take English as the national language but not any Indian language.

    This gives the clear message that they were quite happy with the English rulling India that even after 60 years they can’t just live without it and its a integral part of them may be mixed with blood.

    Giving the logic that much of the technology and scientific work is done in English so its the most important. Hear i doubt that these are the same Tamilians who say no hindi or no Indian Union at all.

    At one hand telling stories of mother language and respect and on the other hand being the slave of British.

    Because of the lack of national integrity we Indians are being taken far from Indian culture and civilization by the brutal hands of english.

    slowly western culture, western cloths, western food entering our lives removing the Indian within us.

    Foreign companies coming to india in 1000s to cut the production here and forcing our farmers to die.

    today we like imported dogs more than indian dogs, imported cats more than indian cats,,,same with horeses, cows…and finally clothes, foods….everything that we use from morning to night..

    Even we like American wives.

    For this reason we first need to be indians by using indian.

    what language becomes national laguage is not important but it most be indian thats important.


  51. My Dear Friend Bharatiya,
    It is wise to take the best from ever country in the world and foolishness to ignore the best practices from the world.
    The Internet was invented by the Americans. So you will stop blogging?
    The Motor Car was invented by the Americans. so you will stop driving?
    The First Satellite was launched by Russians. So you will stop watching news forecast?
    The First Television was launched by the Americans. So you will stop watching TV?
    The First Radio was launched by the Americans. So you will stop listening to Radio?
    The First Printing Press was invented by the swedes. So you will stop reading books?

    Finally, you have to live in stone age!!
    So please stop vilifying and living in the past. We have to march forward with optimism and confidence not with hatred and old grievances…

    What is/does it to be Indian after 62yrs of Independence?
    To speak Hindi No!! (Because our national heroes speak different languages)
    To be Hindu No!! (Because Abdul Kalam is the father of our missile programme)

    We have to be smart and open ourselves to the world and pick up the best practices from the world into our country/psyche, throw away our negative points and reject the negatives that come along with the good practices and move forward. Simple.

    Be Indian, but with the Best Practices from the World for modernisation. No Change will come unless we first change!!

  52. I think the national language issue has been pending too long. Hindi was supposed to be the sole national language by difference of only one vote in parliament (after 15 years of independance); but it didn’t due to anti-Hindi agitations in Tamilnadu. There has not been any debate among the Indian politicians about this. Personally, being a Marathi, I am of the opinion that a diverse contry like India need not have a single national language. All Indian languages should be given equal importance. There should be more intra-language communication and learning to understand different cultures of India. That will be the true national integration. Real India does NOT need a signle national langauge. There has been a strong bond among various Indian cultures for centuries despite speaking so many different languages. The communication has been happening. So the _national language_ mess should be debated and cleared by our so called national politicians before it starts to disintegrate the Indian nation.
    By the way, somewhere in the comments I read that our national anthem is in Hindi. But NO .. its in Bengali (or Bangla). And still every Indian feels very proud while singing it. Thats the real Indianness. Thats the real Unity in Diversity!

  53. I spent hours after hours in my blog in LKADVANI.in few months back. The general feeling is that and I will list them here
    1.)People from no where else but TamilNadu are against Hindi(all over this blog and the one that I introduced)
    2.) India did not born in 1947, India has been around for thousands of years. people, language and expressions have evolved, risen and died. In modern India, the is no one language as widely spoken and understood as is Hindi and therefore an automatic choice of 50% of Indian population who directly speak this language. This percentage is collective more than the population of USA, Canada and Australia.
    3.) The argument that just because it is an official language of 10 states or that just because it is widely spoken and understood does not make it national is laughable. What is the point of argument is that let’s not make anything national that is wide-spread?? What is the point of beauty of Tamil literature if only 6% of India’s concentrated population understands it and that too right there in Tamil Nadu and no where else..Not even in neighboring Karnataka or tiny island SriLanka??
    4.) If India is a federal/ Union Nation (I have seen sharp arguments that we dont want to be part of India if Hindi!!) than Indian government and constitution has prescribed a union language of India and Hindi is that language.
    5.) Those 6% might keep on protesting and few like MNS in Maharastra might put a question mark to it, the fact is that I am not losing my sleep over Hindi coz it is and it will be the language of the state of India and not Tamil or Marathi
    6.) It’s just not politics but it’s deep rooted without any significance to national language. Just because so and so was born in TN will speak Tamil and protest till he/she dies is taking two steps back.
    7.) On the basis of usage, acceptance, popularity, beauty, expression and accessibility there is no language in India that comes closer to Hindi and that includes English too…and we are just not talking about other regional languages.
    8.) I have seen people in states like Andhra, Karnataka, Bengal, and Maharastra understanding Hindi and expressing in Hindi..what is the issue than? what would these 6% do when they come out of their nut shell. What coz not everone knows and understands English as yet Just like I dont relaly understadn French and German as yet.
    9.) last but not the least, One Nation, One Army, One Cricket Team and One Language-Hindi

    Jai Hindi, Jai Bharat

  54. Here we go again..Another Hindi Fanatic…”Mohan”

    As long as there are attitudes like “Mohan” to dominate and impose their “Concept” of Indianess which is speaking “Hindi” on other groups like Marathis/Tamils/Bengalis..they will be given back with an equally “In Your Face” attitude..

    Seeing your chauvinism for Hindi..I hope you are sending your children to a Hindi Only school..If you aren’t then you are a hypocrite!!

    Once again, and hopefully it will illuminate and expand your narrow horizons..I am an optimist.

    We love our Country India dearly and in our own way…We don’t require your certification..We have already shown it in action..”Abdul Kalam” End of Story..Our patriotism for India is not based on Language/Religion/Ethnicity..It is higher than that..It is based on our rich wisdom and culture..This is what Tamil culture has always taught us to be moral and just.

    We love the beauty and wisdom of our Tamil Language, People and Culture in our own way..

    We refuse to be judged by “your” standards of patriotism and philosophy..which is narrow minded and based on just speaking another regional language of North India aka Hindi.

    Learn to respect Punjabi/Marathi/Tamil/Bengali/Telugu..Your language is no super language..It is just another regional language as well..the list goes on….When you respect others, you will automatically be respected.

    Do not lecture others on patriotism and expect others to accept your way of living..

    Learn to Live and let live..
    Just by saying “Jai Hind” doesn’t make you any more nationalistic…

    But we love our country India and its people dearly as well
    Jai Hind..

  55. I am satisfy that Hindi is official language.But it should be considered as a national language because at present time mostely people prefer Hindi as a medium or meanse for gaining knowledge through different study materials for ex.books,news papers and others which are mainly published in Hindi medium.Another feature of Hindi is it is a medium through which many people learn English language.I am sure that very few persons are there who learn English to English.I consider Hindi is developed language then other regional languages in India.Therefore,it should be considered as national language.

  56. As such the constitution of India does not say that any Indian language including hindi is national language. Hindi is being un-necessarily thought to south Indians esp in Karnataka and AP. In north kids need to learn only Hindi(their mother tongue) and english, whereas in Karnataka a kid has to learn a third language –> Hindi even though he/she may never ever need it in entire life. This is down-right discrimination and giving adv to Hindi speakers. India is a land of 1652 languages. Hindi has more speakers only b’cos UP, Bihar have max population and no control on population growth. Its totally unfair that Kannada (which is classical language and abt 3000 yrs old) shud be made to take a backseat for hindi. All Indian languages are equal. There is no need to have Hindi as one national language. If any Indian is migrating from one region to other, the onus is on tht person to learn the language of tht region. India is what it is cos of its diversity and languages. Even if one language was to be lost, its a loss for India.
    I feel Indian because I am a Kannadati(Kannada speaker) If I lose my identity of Kannada I naturally lose my Indian-ness. I cant be Indian without being Kannadati. The two are inter-linked. Kannada is not separate from India. Kannada is as much Indian as Hindi, may be much more (Kannada is 3k to 2.5 k yrs old whr as Hindi is only 700 to 600 yrs old)
    Hindi is unnecessarily associated with nationalism and freedom fight. The fact is, most people of India did not speak hindi before independence. The first queen who rebelled against foreign rule was Abbakka Rani of Karnataka.

    Today Hindi has spread only b’cos of central govt spending crores of rupees on it(its spends more money to spread hindi than on primary health). This spread of hindi will kill all the other Indian languages.
    Though the constitution says that the northern states are to learn at least one south Indian language, its never happened in 60 yrs, but Karnataka is forced to learn hindi even if the kids are facing problems due to this.

  57. The whole blog has been a Hindi vs Non-Hindi argument, well at August 15, 1947 when India got independence, it meant freedom for each and every one, the freedom included the right to choose where he would live, which language he would speak and which religion he would follow.

    India is considered as a secular nation, here we have given the same importance to religions constituting even less than 1% compared to the ones with more people. If we can live in a hetreoreligious community, then we can live in a hetrolinguistic community.

    Unity in Diversity is what is the we take pride in, let me remind you if we choose Hindi as our national language it should be the decision of every Indian, otherwise it would be just a official gimmick. True acceptance comes when accepted by themselves

  58. I see a lot of arguments for and against Hindi as the national language and saying tamils are opposed to it. As a personal opinion let me just share some of my experiences.

    I have been in delhi for years- I learnt Hindi by choice. My neighbour there who was a hard core Hindi person learnt a south Indian language-My language. Both of us went to the same school. At school, i was bullied by a “Bihari” and called a “Madrasi” though i had never even been to Chennai.. A few years later, I met him in Chennai, speaking fluent tamil while i still fumbled with the language.He had settled down well.

    On the other hand My classmate in Chennai-He was from Pune. He refused to learn Tamil. He said, “Let them learn Hindi to talk to me, I won’t waste my time learning other unnecessary languages”. His stay in Chennai was miserable and soon he left, cursing the city and his bad luck..

    I believe India is a great nation. Truly, Unity in diversity is our greatest strength. Is it possible to describe India in a single word? can anyone symbolize India as a single Culture or Religion or even wave of thought?

    There has been much talk of nationalist fevor and unity brought by language. When terrorist attacks occured, was it only a particular region/language segment/economic class that mourned and condemned the terrorists? Did not all Indians, irrespective of language barriers feel outrage at that incident? Do all not feel anger when our National flag is disrespected? Do we need a common language to express all those feelings? if you still say so then pray tell me how we managed to communicate all our emotions? When national calamities occur like the cyclone,earthquake or tsunami did not compassion and aid flow to the affected areas from all parts of the nation?

    Do we really need a single national language when though we speak different tongues, we are really one at heart? Language is something that evolves over a period of time.something that morphs as the needs vary. one really need not “know” a single language to survive in India for when the need arises, we are unanimous in our voice.

    As far as i understand from my travels; Nothing ever becomes accepted, if imposed on people. If I cannot identify myself with Hindi- It cannot be my language. the same goes for Tamil, Malayalam, Bengali, Marathi, Gujarathi or even Marwari. And if my country imposes such restrictions upon me, who knows? It could pave the way for civil war in future.

    Before going into such debates on a national language that in not mandatory let us just think about our National Pledge:

    “India is my country. All Indians are my brothers and sisters.

    I love my country. I am proud of its rich and varied heritage.

    I shall always strive to be worthy of it.

    I shall give my parents, teachers and all elders, respect, and treat everyone with courtesy.

    To my country and my people, I pledge my devotion.

    In their well being and prosperity alone, lies my happiness
    Jai Hind!”

  59. People are being so aggressive in the act of imposing Hindi, they are now telling our national anthem is in HIndi.. So sick! Our national anthem, our national song (hope you know our national song too!) are in BENGALI..

    If you consider Punjabi, Marathi, Gujrati, Bhojpuri, Kashmiri etc as HINDI then you are trying the same here too.. IMPOSITION of Hindi! You probably don’t know most of the Eastern and North-Eastern states use Bengali script (like Bishnupuri Manipuri Assamease etc.) apart from West Bengal, Tripura, some parts of Jharkhand, Orrisa etc who use Bengali as a language.

    Language changes in India with every 300 KMs. In Bihar, I know some dialectics which are neither Bengali nor HIndi but a fusion of them. Please don’t aggregate them into Hindi to show a greater percentage of Hindi speaking people.

    Give respect to every languages. Don’t promote “Hindi hai hum” type slogans written on trains. Better say, we are Indians or humsab bharitiya hai or amra bharatiyo or whatever it is in your mother tongue or whatever language you prefer.

    Thank you.

  60. and one more thing.. Hindi region that is U.P, some parts of M.P, some parts of Bihar is the most under-developed and ill cultured states in India. Yes, it is! There people do politics with caste, dowry is greatly appreciated, no good art of living.. the list is endless. Now if this is supposed to represent India, I can’t take it simply!

  61. Long live malayalam. By saying that Hindi should be the official language of India you are imposing it on our people. We south Indians have spoken the Dravidian languages for the last 3000 years even before the Aryan languages came to India. And we continue to do so until thde end of the world.

  62. Hindi only has such a number of speakers because most of them are uneducated and don’t know how to control their population. There was a programme on rural Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. People shoyld have seen how uncivilised people were with all their caste system . In Kerala we have left all that nonesense.

  63. ya i think u r right that being a citizen of india we should respect hindi. and thanx for providing so much information for hindi it is really going to help me in future

  64. I’m from Gujarat and in addition to my mother tongue, English and Hindi, I speak Kannada. All are very beautiful languages and very much a part of our country’s heritage and should also be an important part of our future. As you can see, I’m pretty fluent in expressing myself in English, but I take pride in conversing in the vernacular every opportunity I get.
    English should be our official language and it should be mandatory to learn English for everyone. This is not from a sentimental point of view, but a practical one. English anyway is the world language, language of higher education and economics. Denying English to the masses on a sentimental grounds is just denying them the opportunity to have finer things in life. And since it is important for everyone to learn English, why not let it be the official language?
    As far as Hindi is concerned, what is standard Hindi anyway? In school, what passed as Hindi literature was literature written in dialects from the central Indian heartland, Briji, Bhojpuri etc; many often unintelligible to each other. A language which doesn’t have a standard form to identify it with cannot be used as a standard. Gujarati and Kannada on the other hand are very standard in form and I’m sure so are the languages of the other states in India. Most other languages are Older than Hindi and have a very rich literature and are much better developed than Hindi. So how is it that all of a sudden, all these languages should be considered less important than the ledgeling that Hindi is.
    My experience with People from the Hindi heartland (7 years spent with them) has been that they are very arrogant and do not recognize culture and language from anywhere other than the Hindi heartland as being truly Indian. They take such a chauvanist view now, when Hindi is not the National language, They will extinguish all the other cultures once Hindi is imposed as a national language.
    I frankly don’t want to have these arrogant, uncouth, uncultured people be the representatives of the rich language and culture that exists elsewhere in the country. I also request my Tamizh, Malayali, Kannada and Telugu brethren to not lump all North Indians with these ungentlemanly, uncultured people and discover the rich culture and language that the rest of us (Gujarati, Bengali, Assamese, Oriya, Marathis, Punjabis, Dogras, Kashmiris, Manipuri, Nagas, Garo, Khasi, Jaintia etc do have).

  65. namaste!!
    i am myself a punjabi and have great respect for the hindi language , but have to say sometimes the “hindi plz” attitude of hindi speaking people pisses me off… needless to say if hindi was made the national language it will only give such people the opportunity to force hindi upon others. many times in college when i speak in punjabi to another punjabi such a fanatic pops up fromm somewhere “abe hindi mein bol ” and i just have one response to that :”in ur face!!”

  66. It was intereting to read all the posts. It is true that India doesn’t have a National Language. I don’t understand why is it hard for Indians specially the North Indian Hindi speakers to accept it. I was born in Chennai but raised in Bihar. Today, by knowing to speak 7 languages, I can confidently claim I am a true Tamil Indian. It is not the question of learning a language or accepting Hindi as the National language. It is common sense! It has to do with attitude. Despite knowing Hindi, I deliberately do not speak Hindi while in Chennai and the reason for that is: The majority of the North Indians DO NOT respect and appreciate ‘Unity in diversity’ and expect everyone to learn their language. Secondly, they live in Chennai and talk ill about Tamils, their food habits and their culture. If you closely observe, the problems in Mumbai and Bangalore and primarily because of huge influx of migrant North Indian Hindi speakers who refuse to respect the local language and culture. If at all a National language is selected, it has to have some ‘quality’ in it NOT because it is spoken by the majority. If the National symbols are selected based on numerical supremacy, then the National bird should have been crow and not peacock! Almost all South Indians be it Tamils, Kannadigas, Telugus or Malayalees learn the respective local language. How many North Indian Hindi speakers learn South Indian langauges? If you are talking specifically about Tamil nadu, please understand the meaning of the state. It means ‘ Country of Tamils’. Nadu in Tamil means country. Further, for the Union Government to communicate with Tamil Nadu, English is to be used. I appreciate some of your concerns. How will a Tamil communicate with others when he moves out of Tamil Nadu.
    1. Most urbanised state in India – Tamil Nadu
    2. Detroit of South Asia – Chennai, Tamil Nadu
    3. Silicon Valley of India, Bangalore (50% are Tamils) followed by Chennai
    4. Best in Education – Tamil Nadu (IIT, NIT, Anna University, VIT, JIPMER, MMC, Loyola, MCC are a few of the many prestigious instituitions)
    5. Best in Healthcare – Tamil Nadu
    6. Chennai Transportation is 3rd best in the world.
    7. The Tamil civilization is considered to be the ‘last surviving classical civilization of this world’ – source BBC
    A Tamilian is NOT forced to move out of his home state. If he moves out, it is by choice. Further, Tamils are progressive by nature and hence they choose to go abroad for better career prospectives. Quite a few invest in Tamil Nadu as well. An average Tamilian with basic English knowledge can easily survive in Sri Lanka, Singapore, Malaysia and Mauritius. I do not understand the need of Hindi being compulsory in Tamil Nadu. TN boards is one board that offers even French as second language. It is clear that the option of learning any language is available. If you define Indian identity through Hindi, I would prefer NOT to be called myself as an Indian. I am more than happy and proud of my Tamil identity. Please donot attempt to integrate India by imposing Hindi. India is a great country with lot of different cultures, customs, languages and beliefs but it is sadly being misrepresented by the Hindi speakers.

  67. There’s no national language in India: Gujarat High Court

    AHMEDABAD: Does India have a national language? No, says the Gujarat High Court. The court also observed that in India, a majority of people have accepted Hindi as a national language and many speak Hindi and write in Devanagari script, but it’s not officially the national language.

    With this observation, a bench headed by Chief Justice S J Mukhopadhaya refused to issue directions that packaged commodities must contain details about goods in Hindi.

    Petitioner Suresh Kachhadia had, in 2009, filed a public interest litigation (PIL) in the Gujarat HC seeking mandamus to the Centre as well as the state government to make it mandatory for manufacturers of goods to print in Hindi, all details of goods like price, ingredients and the date of manufacture. His contention was that the consumers are entitled to know what they are consuming.

  68. Hi friends , I have seen all the post and arguments, first of all India is known for its vast number of language ,so lets not fight for the sake of language , for Those in Tamil Nadu ,if any ones is intrested in learinng hindi ,please do so and do not stop anyone from learning it just because you dont like it ,and vice versa for other regions also , for me I consider hindi important only from the point of view that many people speak it and not for any other reason and a Tamilian can think on this grounds and then decide if he should have a knowlege of this language or no.if he feels there is not need then let it be to his own self and there should not be any imposition from anyone.I feel languages should go hand in hand without any disputes.

  69. Adi kal or Vir-Gatha kal (c. 1050 to 1375)
    Literature of Adi kal (c. before 15th century CE) was developed in the regions of Kannauj, Delhi, Ajmer stretching up to central India.[3] Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem written by Chand Bardai (1149 – c. 1200), is considered as one of the first works in the history of Hindi literature. Chand Bardai was a court poet of Prithviraj Chauhan, the famous ruler of Delhi and Ajmer during the invasion of Muhammad of Ghor.
    Jayachand, the last ruler of Kannauj belonging to the Rathore Rajput clan, gave more patronage to Sanskrit (which was no longer the common man’s language in this period) rather than local dialects. Harsha, the author of Naishdhiya Charitra, was his court poet. Jagnayak (sometimes Jagnik), the royal poet in Mahoba, and Nalha, the royal poet in Ajmer, were the other prominent literary figures in this period. However, after Prithviraj Chauhan’s defeat in the Second Battle of Tarain, most literary works belonging to this period were destroyed by the army of Muhammad of Ghor. Very few scriptures and manuscripts from this period are available and their genuineness is also doubted.
    Some Siddha and Nathpanthi poetical works belonging to this period are also found, but their genuineness is again, doubted. The Siddhas belonged to the Vajrayana, a later Buddhist cult. Some scholars argue that the language of Siddha poetry is not an earlier form of Hindi, but Magadhi Prakrit. Nathpanthis were yogis who practised the Hatha yoga. Some Jain and Rasau (heroic poets) poetry works are also available from this period.
    In the Deccan region in South India, Dakkhini or Hindavi was used. It flourished under the Delhi Sultanate and later under the Nizams of Hyderabad. It was written in the Persian script. Nevertheless, the Hindavi literature can be considered as proto-Hindi literature. Many Deccani experts like Sheikh Ashraf or Mulla Vajahi used the word Hindavi to describe this dialect. Others such as Roustami, Nishati etc. preferred to call it Deccani. Shah Buharnuddin Janam Bijapuri used to call it Hindi. The first Deccani author was Khwaja Bandanawaz Gesudaraz Muhammad Hasan. He wrote three prose works – Mirazul Aashkini, Hidayatnama and Risala Sehwara. His grandson Abdulla Hussaini wrote Nishatul Ishq. The first Deccani poet was Nizami.
    During the later part of this period and early Bhakti Kala, many saint-poets like Ramanand and Gorakhnath became famous. The earliest form of Hindi can also be seen in some of Vidyapati’s Maithili works.
    [edit]Bhakti kal (c. 1375 to 1700)
    The medieval Hindi literature is marked by the influence of Bhakti movement and composition of long, epic poems.
    Avadhi and Brij Bhasha were the dialects in which literature was developed. The main works in Avadhi are Malik Muhammad Jayasi’s Padmavat and Tulsidas’s Ramacharitamanas. The major works in Braj dialect are Tulsidas’s Vinaya Patrika and Surdas’s Sur Sagar. Sadhukaddi was also a language commonly used, especially by Kabir in his poetry and dohas.[4]
    The Bhakti period also marked great theoretical development in poetry forms chiefly from a mixture of older forms of poetry in Sanskrit School and the Persian School. These included Verse Patterns like Doha (two-liners), Sortha, Chaupaya (four-liners) etc. This was also the age when Poetry was characterized under the various Rasas. Unlike the Adi Kaal (also called the Vir Gatha Kaal) which was characterized by an overdose of Poetry in the Vir Rasa (Heroic Poetry), the Bhakti Yug marked a much more diverse and vibrant form of poetry which spanned the whole gamut of rasas from Shringara rasa (love), Vir Rasa (Heroism).
    Bhakti poetry had two schools – the Nirguna school (the believers of a formless God or an abstract name) and the Saguna school (the believers of a God with attributes and worshippers of Vishnu’s incarnations). Kabir and Guru Nanak belong to the Nirguna school, and their philosophy was greatly influenced by the Advaita Vedanta philosophy of Adi Sankaracharya. They believed in the concept of Nirgun Nirakaar Bramh or the Shapeless Formless One. The Saguna school was represented by mainly Vaishnava poets like Surdas, Tulsidas and others and was a logical extension of the Dvaita and Vishishta Advaita Philosophy propounded by the likes of Madhavacharya etc. This school was chiefly Vaishnava in orientation as in seen in the main compositions like Ramacharitamanas, Sur Saravali, Sur Sagar extoling Rama and Krishna.
    This was also the age of tremendous integration between the Hindu and the Islamic elements in the Arts with the advent of many Muslim Bhakti poets like Abdul Rahim Khan-I-Khana who was a court poet to Mughal emperor Akbar and was a great devotee of Krishna. The Nirgun School of Bhakti Poetry was also tremendously secular in nature and its propounders like Kabir and Guru Nanak had a large number of followers irrespective of caste or religion. it is all about period of veer ras
    [edit]Riti-kavya kal (c. 1700 to 1900)
    In Ritikavya or Ritismagra Kavya period, the erotic element became predominant in Hindi literature. This era is called Riti (meaning ‘procedure’) because it was the age when poetic figures and theory were developed to the fullest. But this emphasis on poetry theory greatly reduced the emotional aspects of poetry—the main characteristic of the Bhakti movement—and the actual content of the poetry became less important. The Saguna School of the Bhakti Yug split into two schools (Rama bhakti and Krishna bhakti) somewhere in the interregnum of the Bhakti and the Reeti Eras. Although most Reeti works were outwordly related to Krishna Bhakti, their emphasis had changed from total devotion to the supreme being to the Shringar or erotic aspects of Krishna’s life—his Leela, his pranks with the Gopis in Braj, and the description of the physical beauty of Krishna and Radha,(Krishna’s Consort). The poetry of Bihari, and Ghananand Das fit this bill. The most well known book from this age is the Bihari Satsai of Bihari, a collection of Dohas (couplets), dealing with Bhakti (devotion), Neeti (Moral policies) and Shringar (love).
    [edit]Adhunik kal (c. 1900 onwards)
    In 1800, the British East India Company established Fort William College at Calcutta. The College President J. B. Gilchrist hired professors to write books in Hindi and Urdu. Some of these books were Prem Sagar by Lallu Lal, Naasiketopaakhyan by Sadal Mishra, Sukhsagar by Sadasukhlal of Delhi and Rani Ketaki ki kahani by Munshi Inshallah Khan.

    A depiction of Surya in a 1884 book, Indrajalakala (The Art of Magic); Jwala Prakash Press, Meerut
    The person who brought realism in the Hindi prose literature was Munshi Premchand, who is considered as the most revered figure in the world of Hindi fiction and progressive movement. Before Premchand, the Hindi literature revolved around fairy or magical tales, entertaining stories and religious themes. Premchand’s novels have been translated into many other languages.
    [edit]Bhartendu Yug
    [edit]Dwivedi Yug
    The Dwivedi Yug (“Age of Dwivedi”) in Hindi literature lasted from 1900 to 1918.It is named after Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, who played a major role in establishing modern Hindi language in poetry and broadening the acceptable subjects of Hindi poetry from the traditional ones of religion and romantic love. He encouraged poetry in Hindi dedicated to nationalism and social reform.[5]
    Dwivedi became the editor of Sarasvati in 1903 and used it to crusade for reforms in Hindi literature. One of the most prominent poems of the period was Maithili Sharan Gupt’s Bharat-bharati, which evokes the past glory of India. Shridhar Prathak’s Bharatgit is another renowned poem of the period.[5]
    Some scholars have labeled much of the poetry of this period as “versified propaganda”. According to Lucy Rosenstein: “It is verse of public statement; its language is functional but aesthetically unappealing. Earnest, concerned with social issues and moral values, it is puritanical poetry in which aesthetic considerations are secondary. Imagination, originality, poetic sensibility and expression are wanting, the metre is restrictive, the idiom clumsy.” She adds, however, that the period was important for laying the foundations for modern Hindi poetry, it did reflect sensitivity to social issues of the time, and the inelegance is a typical feature of a “young” poetry, as she considers Modern Hindi.[5]
    Without a poetic tradition in modern Hindi, poets often modeled their forms on Braj, and later on Sanskrit, Urdu, Bengali and English forms, often ill-suited to Hindi. The subjects of the poems tended to be communal rather than personal. Characters were often presented not as individuals but as social types.[5]
    [edit]Chhayavaadi Yug
    In the 20th century, Hindi literature saw a romantic upsurge. This is known as Chhayavaad (shadowism) and the literary figures belonging to this school are known as Chhayavaadi. Jaishankar Prasad, Suryakant Tripathi ‘Nirala’, Mahadevi Varma and Sumitranandan Pant, are the four major Chhayavaadi poets. Poet Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’ was another great poet with some Chayavaadi element in his poetry although he wrote in other genres as well.
    This period of Neo-romanticism, represents the adolescence of Hindi Poetry. It is marked by beauty of expression and flow of intense emotion. The four representative poets of this era represent the best in Hindi Poetry. A unique feature of this period is the emotional (and sometimes active) attachment of poets with national freedom struggle, their effort to understand and imbibe the vast spirit of a magnificent ancient culture and their towering genius which grossly overshadowed all the literary ‘talked abouts’ of next seven decades.
    Other important genres of Adhunik Sahitya (Modernism) are: Prayogvad (Experimentalism) of Ajneya and the Tar Saptak poets, also known as Nayi Kavita (New Poetry) and Nayi Kahani (New Story) of Nirmal Verma and others; followed by Pragativad (Progressivism) of Gajanan Madhav Muktibodh and other authors.[6]
    Among the numerous schools of poetry which sprang up in the fifties of this century was Nakenwad, a school deriving its nomenclature from the first letters of the names of its three pioneers – Pandit Nalin Vilochan Sharma, Kesari Kumar, and Naresh Mehta all poets of note in their own right.[7] Apart from being poets, Nalin Vilochan and Kesari Kumar were also brilliant critics, with a wide perspective on literary history.[7] Their critical attitude is marked by a synthesis or coordination of various disciplines of human knowledge – philosophy, history, art and culture, all pressed into the service of literary appraisal and analysis.[7]
    [edit]Hindi travel literature
    Rahul Sankrityayan, Bhadant Anand Kausalyayan, Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan ‘Ajneya’ and Baba Nagarjun were some of the great Indian writers who dedicated themselves entirely to the Hindi Travel Literature (Yatra Vritanta). Rahul Sankrityayan was one of the greatest traveled scholars of India, spending forty-five years of his life on travels away from his home. He is known as the (“Father of Hindi Travel literature”). Baba Nagarjun was a major Hindi and Maithili poet who has also penned a number of novels, short stories, literary biographies and travelogues, and was known as (“Janakavi- the People’s Poet”).
    [edit]Hindi playwriting
    The pioneer of Hindi theatre as well as playwrighting, Bhartendu Harishchandra wrote Satya Harishchandra (1875), Bharat Durdasha (1876) and Andher Nagari (1878), in the late 19th century, Jaishankar Prasad became the next big figure in Hindi playwriting with plays like Skanda Gupta (1928), Chandragupta (1931) and Dhruvswamini (1933).[8][9]
    As the Independence struggle was gathering steam playwrights broaching issues of nationalism and subversive ideas against the British, yet to dodge censorship they adapted themes from mythology, history and legend and used them as vehicle for political messages, a trend that continues to date, though now it was employed to bring out social, personal and psychological issues rather than clearly political, though street theatre broke this trend in coming decades in post-independence era, like IPTA-inspired, Naya Theatre of Habib Tanvir did in 1950s-90s, Jana Natya Manch of Safdar Hashmi did in 1970s-80s. Post-independence the emerging republic threw up new issues for playwrights to tackle and express, and Hindi playwriting showed greater brevity and symbolism, but it was not as prolific as in case with Hindi poetry or fiction.[10] Yet we have playwrights like Jagdish Chandra Mathur (Konark) and Upendranath Ashk (Anjo Didi), who displayed a steadily evolving understanding of stagecraft. These were followed another generation of pioneers in Hindi playwrighting, Mohan Rakesh, who started with Ashadh Ka Ek Din (1958), Adhe Adhure and Lehron Ke Rajhans, Dharamvir Bharati, who wrote Andha Yug, and other playwrights like Surendra Verma, and Bhisham Sahni.
    [edit]Hindi essay-writing
    Acharya Kuber Nath Rai is one of the writers who dedicated themselves entirely to the form of essay-writing.[11] His collections of essays Gandha Madan, Priya neel-kanti, Ras Aakhetak, Vishad Yog, Nishad Bansuri, Parna mukut have enormously enriched the form of essay.[12] A scholar of Indian culture and western literature, he was proud of Indian heritage.[11] His love for natural beauty and Indian folk literatures and preference for agricultural society over the age of machines, his romantic outlook, aesthetic sensibility, his keen eye on contemporary reality and classical style place him very high among contemporary essayists in Hindi.[11]

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